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АДДАМС Джейн ♀ 1860-1935 США социолог и социальный реформатор, лауреат Нобелевской премии мира 1931 ADDAMS Jane ♀ 1860-1935 USA sociologist and social reformer, Nobel laureate peace 1931

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 Addams, Jane (b. Sept. 6, 1860, Cedarville, Ill., U.S.--d. May 21, 1935, Chicago, Ill.), American social reformer and pacifist, cowinner (with Nicholas Murray Butler) of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1931. She is probably best known as the founder of Hull House, Chicago, one of the first social settlements in North America. After graduation from Rockford (Ill.) College in 1881, Addams entered the Woman's Medical College, Philadelphia, but her health failed, and for two years she was an invalid. Then (1883-85, 1887-88) she traveled extensively in Europe, visiting the Toynbee Hall settlement house (founded 1884) in the Whitechapel industrial district of London. Upon returning to the United States, she and her traveling companion, Ellen Gates Starr, determined to create something like Toynbee Hall. In a working-class district in Chicago, they acquired a large vacant residence built by Charles Hull in 1856, and, calling it Hull House, they moved into it on Sept. 18, 1889. Eventually the settlement included 13 buildings and a playground, as well as a camp near Lake Geneva, Wis. Many prominent social workers and reformers--Julia Lathrop, Florence Kelley, Grace and Edith Abbott--came to live at Hull House, as did others who continued to make their living in business or the arts while helping Addams in settlement activities. Among the facilities at Hull House were included a day nursery, a gymnasium, a community kitchen, and a boarding club for working girls. Hull House offered college-level courses in various subjects; furnished training in art, music, and crafts such as bookbinding; and sponsored one of the earliest little-theatre groups, the Hull House Players. In addition to making available services and cultural opportunities for the largely immigrant population of the neighbourhood, Hull House afforded an opportunity for young social workers to acquire training. Addams worked with labour as well as other reform groups toward goals including the first juvenile-court law, tenement-house regulation, an eight-hour working day for women, factory inspection, and worker's compensation. She strove in addition for justice for immigrants and blacks, advocated research aimed at determining the causes of poverty and crime, and supported woman suffrage. In 1910 she became the first woman president of the National Conference of Social Work, and in 1912 she played an active part in the Progressive Party's presidential campaign for Theodore Roosevelt. At The Hague in 1915 she served as chairman of the International Congress of Women, following which was established the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. The establishment of the Chicago campus of the University of Illinois in 1963 forced the Hull House Association to relocate its headquarters. The majority of its original buildings were demolished, but the Hull residence itself was preserved as a monument to Jane Addams. Among Addams' books are Democracy and Social Ethics (1902), Newer Ideals of Peace (1907), Twenty Years at Hull-House (1910), and The Second Twenty Years at Hull-House (1930). Related Internet Links: Jane Addams Jane Addams--Hull House A Modern Lear The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements Why Women Should Vote Twenty Years at Hull-House Jane Addams Jane Addams, 1860-1935 Jane Addams Copyright 1994-1999 Encyclopжdia Britannica Hull House Association of Chicago is the direct descendent of the settlement house founded by Jane Addams in 1889. History books have documented the lifetime achievements of this remarkable woman whose name represents not only a famous place in American history, but a philosophy of community service and social reform. Jane Addams was a member of the first generation of privileged, American women who obtained college educations and then dedicated their lives to community service and social justice. Born in 1860, Ms. Addams was influenced by the abolitionist movement, the westward expansion of the US government, the industrial revolution, the progressive era of political reform, and most importantly, the Protestant ethic of hard work, intellectual achievement, and duty to serve others. Having come from a comfortable, middle class background, Ms. Addams did not have to "work to survive" or "earn a living". Many of her peers accepted a life in a "good marriage" and settled into a pattern of homemaking, church activities, and limited participation in community and charitable services. But Jane Addams was different, and she chose to make use of her college education in a way that would challenge her physically, intellectually, and spiritually. Jane Addams believed that she had been educated to serve, but she wanted to serve in a way that would have a real impact on the lives of people who had not had the same advantages as she. During her travels to Europe after the completion of her education, Ms. Addams visited and was inspired by the community of residents she met at Toynbee Hall in London. It was there she first encountered the concept of a "settlement house" and observed well educated university graduates living in a community of working class and poor people. These settlement workers organized clubs, recreation, and educational programs for people in the neighborhood. The distinguishing characteristic of the settlement was its ability to deliver services without employing "professional social workers" or welfare agency staff who were often judgmental and punitive in the way they related to poor people. In 1889, Jane Addams and her lifelong friend, Ellen Gates Starr, had been given a house by a retired businessman named Charles Hull. His once beautiful country mansion, which had served as a retreat from the rigors of city life, had gradually been surrounded by the encroaching tenements of the rapidly growing city. The house, located at the corner of Polk and Halsted streets, was referred to by the people in the neighborhood as "the Hull House" and stands today as a national landmark and the museum honoring the work of Jane Addams and her colleagues. It was to this house Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr moved on September 18, 1889. On that day, they opened their doors, welcomed their neighbors, and thus began the "great experiment" that would last for over 100 years. The community of the westside of Chicago was characteristic of the large, northern, industrial urban areas of the 19th century of America. Chicago was a center of industry and commerce and served as a gateway between the manufacturing northeast and the agricultural midwest. After the civil war, the US push westward to claim new territories fueled an incredible burst of growth in transportation, manufacturing, and commerce. This economic expansion required cheap labor, and thus massive migrations from Europe were encouraged by the US government. The Halsted street neighborhood where Jane Addams made her home was a slum complete with overcrowded tenements, crime, disease, inadequate schools, inferior hospitals, and insufficient sanitation. The abundance of non-English speaking "new Americans" who had come from southern and eastern Europe overwhelmed the public welfare agencies, mutual aid societies, and municipal government. Newspaper accounts from that era abound with reports and editorials in which public debate was devoted to fears of "foreigners, anarchists, and unwashed rabble" who had no knowledge of American democracy and who were perceived as having no contribution to make to American culture. There was great concern expressed as to how quickly the new arrivals would give up their old world ways, and assimilate into mainstream America. It was believed that until they gave up their language, customs, and loyalty to the old countries, the immigrants were a threat to the political, economic, and social structures of the day. Not surprisingly, the new immigrants self-perception was quite different from the one expressed in the mainstream press. Many arrived with little more than the clothes on their backs and their heads filled with tales of "streets of gold". While the merchants and factory owners of this bustling "city of the big shoulders" were all too eager to hire immigrants, most were unwilling to pay a decent wage or accept any responsibility for creating the conditions which perpetuated the slums. Local politicians were easily corrupted by moneyed interests, and city services (garbage removal, building safety codes, and police and fire protection) were woefully inadequate. Economic conditions required parents to work long hours, leaving small children unsupervised and forcing older children to scrounge for themselves. Schooling was inadequate, and teachers unaccustomed to the ethnic diversity were scornful of children who could not speak English. Recreational facilities were non-existent so that juvenile delinquency, prostitution, and petty street crime became major threats to the safety of everyone living in the tenements. Forced to work in appalling conditions, unwelcomed by the community leaders who exploited their labor but ignored their needs, the immigrants of Chicago's westside were without hope or means of escape. It was here that Jane Addams brought herself, her belongings, her political ideals, and her determination to live by a set of principles. She was a student and an advocate of the progressive political movement which espoused such ideas as political reform, women's suffrage, pacifism, cultural pluralism, dignity of labor, social justice, rights of children, the need for public health and safety rules, and the duty of government to protect the vulnerable. She believed that civic, religious, and philanthropic organizations needed to join into partnership with community residents and government to solve the problems which created ghetto life. Ms. Addams believed that the "new immigrants" would enrich American culture if given ample opportunity to participate in it. Ms. Addams established her residency in Hull House based upon several basic principles: First, Ms. Addams wished to live in the community as an equal participant in the local issues of the day. Unlike the social workers and society matrons who visited the poor and then returned to their middle class homes every evening, Ms. Addams and her colleagues lived where they worked. The "settlement" concept was central to the success of the Hull House community, and the practice of "neighbors helping neighbors" became a cornerstone of the Hull House philosophy. Second, the Hull House community believed in the fundamental dignity of all individuals and accorded every person whom they encountered with equal respect while learning about their ethnic origins, cultures, and customs. Third, the Hull House community believed that poverty and the lack of opportunity bred the problems of the ghetto. Ignorance, disease, and crime were the result of economic desperation and not the result of some moral flaw in the character of the new immigrants. Ms. Addams promoted the idea that if afforded a decent education, adequate living conditions, and reliable income, any person could overcome the obstacles of the ghetto, and furthermore if allowed to develop his skills, that person could not only make a better life for himself but contribute to the community as a whole. Access to opportunity was the key to successful participation in a democratic, self governing society. The greatest challenge and achievement of the settlement was to "help people help themselves". Implementing these principles was no small task, and Ms. Addams gathered around her a community of young men and women, who were well educated, and willing to sacrifice personal comfort, to risk living in a hostile community, and to experiment actively in seeking solutions to the challenge of ghetto life at the turn of the century. The activities of Hull House included citizenship and literacy classes, adult education, sports and hobby clubs, theatre and dance programs, cooking, sewing, and homemaking classes, public baths, day nurseries, health clinics and visiting nurses, immunization programs, art appreciation, lending libraries, political discussion groups, lectures on educational and workplace reforms, loaned meeting spaces for labor meetings, mutual aid societies, and social clubs. Most importantly, Hull House created a forum for public debate on policy and legislative issues in municipal, state, and national arenas. The achievements of the Hull House community are too numerous to list, but the impact was incalculable. This group of idealistic young people made Hull House the most famous settlement house in the USA and generated ideas, proposals, and policy reforms still felt 100 years later. Civil rights, women's suffrage, international peace, juvenile protection, labor relations, court reform, public health, public housing, civic watchdog, and urban planning movements can all trace their origins, at least in part, to the work of the Hull House settlement. By the time of her death in 1935, Jane Addams had won the Nobel Peace Prize and changed forever the profile of Chicago. After her death, the residents of Hull House carried on the work begun by Jane Addams and the other founders. Hull House continued to serve the people of Halsted Street through the Depression of the 1930's and World War II. But economic and political forces had an impact on the changing nature of urban life. While migrations from Europe had diminished considerably, "new immigrants" from the rural south, the Hill country of Appalachia, central and south America, Asia, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa and the Arabic middle east continued to pour into Chicago in search of employment, education, and a better life. At the same time, two major cultural shifts occurred: During the 1950's suburban communities were established in a ring around the city, and the availability of affordable, single family homes escalated the "white flight" from the urban core. Industry followed, and the jobs went with them. During the 1960's the emergence of publicly funded welfare programs and the War on Poverty established government as the primary source of relief for poor people who were left behind in the ghettos. It is ironic that the many of the reforms promoted by Hull House had become institutionalized, and the resulting federal, urban renewal programs destroyed the very neighborhood which had been the home of the settlement residents for 70 years. Hull House Association was faced with the challenge of transition to this modern day urban scene. The original Hull House complex of 13 buildings was sold to make way for the new campus of the University of Illinois, and Hull House moved to the northside of Chicago. After the move from Halsted street, Hull House established two community centers: Jane Addams Center in Lakeview, and Uptown Center in a storefront on Wilson Avenue. In addition, other community centers located in south, west, and suburban communities joined Hull House to become members of the modern Hull House Association. Works by Jane Addams: - "Twenty Years at Hull House" by Jane Addams - "Democracy or Militarism" by Jane Addams Jane Addams Links: – Nobel Museum Project Homepage – Chicago Public Library Homepage – National Women Hall of Fame - Women in History Homepage – Itinerary of Europe trip taken by Jane Addams – Correspondence bewteen Jane Addams to Helen C. Travis - Document Thirteen: Official Report from Emily Greene Balch to Jane Addams Pictures of Jane Addams and Hull House: - Swarthmore College Peace Collection – Pictures of Hull House Mansion – Pictures of Jane Addams – Pictures of Hull House Association and Jane Addams – Pictures of Hull House Dining Room Last updated 06/23/00 © Hull House Associ The Nobel Peace Prize for 1931 Speech by Halvdan Koht*, member of the Nobel Committee In awarding the Peace Prize to two Americans, the Nobel Committee today brings the United States into first place among those nations whose representatives have received the prize during the past thirty years. Previously, France had the highest number of prizewinners, a total of six, while other nations had no more than two or three. As of today, seven Peace Prizes will have gone to America, four of them during the last five years. What is true of the other Nobel awards is also true of the Peace Prize: people do not always agree that it is given to the most suitable candidates. And no one is more aware of the difficulties involved in the selection than the members of the Nobel Committee. But I trust everyone will agree that it is only natural that so many Peace Prizes should have gone to the United States in recent years. The United States of America is a world in itself, as large as the whole of Europe; and this world is a great land of peace where war between states, either economic or military, is unthinkable. But the United States is, at the same time, one of the great world powers and economically is now the greatest of all. By virtue of this position, she influences decisions on war and peace in all corners of the globe. We can say, in fact, that, because of this vast economic strength, she wields greater power over war and peace than any other country on earth. All who yearn for a lasting peace must therefore look to America for help. America helped - perhaps it would be more correct to say compelled - Europe to create a League of Nations which would provide a firm basis for peaceful coexistence among nations. It was a crushing blow that America herself did not join this organization, and without doubt her failure to do so contributed largely to the failure of the League of Nations to live up to expectations. We still see too much of the old rivalries of power politics. Had the United States joined, she would have been a natural mediator between many of the conflicting forces in Europe, for America is more interested in peace in Europe than in lending her support to any particular country. It must be said, however, that the United States is not the power for peace in the world that we should have wished her to be. She has sometimes let herself drift into the imperialism which is the natural outcome of industrial capitalism in our age. In many ways she is typical of the wildest form of capitalist society, and this has inevitably left its mark on American politics. But America has at the same time fostered some of the most spirited idealism on earth. It may be that this idealism derives its vigor from the squalor and evil produced by social conditions, in other words from the contrasts within itself. It is certainly an undeniable fact, which must strike anyone who knows the country, that the American nation has an instinctive and profound faith in what the philosophers of 100 or 150 years ago used to call human perfectability, the capacity to become more and more perfect. It is a faith which has provided the foundation for some of our greatest religions and one which has inspired much of the best work for progress. It was proclaimed by Jesus Christ; it inspired the work of men like Emerson and Wergeland1. To the American mind nothing is impossible. This attitude applies not only to science and technology but to social forms and conditions as well. To an American an ideal is not just a beautiful mirage but a practical reality the implementation of which is every man's duty. American social idealism expresses itself as a burning desire to devote work and life to the construction of a more equitable society, in which men will show each other greater consideration in their mutual relations, will provide stronger protection to the weak, and will offer greater opportunities for the beneficent forces of progress. Two of the finest representatives of this American idealism are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize today. Both have worked assiduously and for many years to revive the ideal of peace and to rekindle the spirit of peace in their own nation and in the whole of mankind. In honoring Jane Addams, we also pay tribute to the work which women can do for peace and fraternity among nations. The old concept implied that woman was the source of nearly all sin and strife on earth. Popular tradition and poetry would also have it that women were frequently the cause of the wars waged by kings and nations. I know of only one legend to the contrary, the story of the Sabine women who threw themselves between their Roman fathers and brothers and their Sabine husbands. In modern times the poets, starting with Goethe, Ibsen, and Bjørnson2, have seen women in a different light; in their eyes women reflect the highest and purest moral standards of society. And no man has placed greater faith in the work of women for the cause of peace than did Bjørnson. It is this new position acquired by women in the society of our time, their new independence in relation to men, that gave us reason to anticipate that they would constitute a new force in the work for peace. Bjørnson seemed to see women as bringing «the spirit of calm to the tumult of battle», with the prayer that love should prevail over the passion to kill, and to believe that when women obtained power in society and in the state, the very spirit of war must die. We must nevertheless acknowledge that women have not altogether fulfilled the hopes we have placed in them. They have allowed too much scope to the old morality of men, the morality of war. In practical politics we have seen too little of that love, that warm maternal feeling which renders murder and war so hateful to every woman. But fortunately we have seen something of this feminine will which revolts against war. Whenever women have organized, they have always included the cause of peace in their program. And Jane Addams combines all the best feminine qualities which will help us to develop peace on earth. Twice in my life, once more than twenty years ago and now again this year, I have had the pleasure of visiting the institution where she has been carrying on her lifework. In the poorest districts of Chicago, among Polish, Italian, Mexican, and other immigrants, she has established and maintained the vast social organization centered in Hull-House3. Here young and old alike, in fact all who ask, receive a helping hand whether they wish to educate themselves or to find work. When you meet Miss Addams here - be it in meeting room, workroom, or dining room - you immediately become poignantly aware that she has built a home and in it is a mother to one and all. She is not one to talk much, but her quiet, greathearted personality inspires confidence and creates an atmosphere of goodwill which instinctively brings out the best in everyone. From this social work, often carried on among people of different nationalities, it was for her only a natural step to the cause of peace. She has now been its faithful spokesman for nearly a quarter of a century. Little by little, through no attempt to draw attention by her work but simply through the patient self-sacrifice and quiet ardor which she devoted to it, she won an eminent place in the love and esteem of her people. She became the leading woman in the nation, one might almost say its leading citizen. Consequently, the fact that she took a stand for the ideal of peace was of special significance; since millions of men and women looked up to her, she could give a new strength to that ideal among the American people. And when the need became more pressing than ever, she inspired American women to work for peace on an international level. We shall always remember as one of the finest and most promising events during the last great war, the gathering of women from all over the world, even from enemy countries, who met to discuss and pursue common action for world peace. The initiative for this conference, which took place at The Hague in April of 1915, came from the Dutch women, and it is only right to pay tribute to the memory of Dr. Aletta Jacobs4 who stood at their head. But it was natural that they should ask Miss Addams to come to preside over their conference. From the moment the war broke out, she had launched a propaganda campaign, with the aim of uniting America and the other neutral countries to end the war, and had succeeded in forming a great organization of women to support this program. So it was that she energetically opposed the entry of the United States into the war. She held fast to the ideal of peace even during the difficult hours when other considerations and interests obscured it from her compatriots and drove them into the conflict. Throughout the whole war she toiled for a peace that would not engender a new war, becoming, as she did so, the spokesman for the pacifist women of the world. Sometimes her views were at odds with public opinion both at home and abroad. But she never gave in, and in the end she regained the place of honor she had had before in the hearts of her people. Devotion to a cause always inspires respect, and in her devotion Miss Addams is truly American. This very year she joined with representatives of countries all over the world to call for general disarmament. In Nicholas Murray Butler, president of the great Columbia University in New York, the Nobel Committee sees a man who shares the qualities of Jane Addams. His work for peace began at about the same time as hers, some twenty-five years ago, and it has been distinguished by tireless energy and a zeal almost without parallel. He is one of those men who give themselves completely to anything they undertake, always ready, always willing. Nothing can discourage him or sap his strength. Nothing can disturb the serene smile in his eyes. And his personality is infectious, for he communicates courage, vigor, and confidence to all who work with him. He has a great talent for putting others to work and for finding the right job for the right man. If there be a man who can truly be called American, then Butler is that man: a greathearted worker and a splendid organizer. I have watched him at work at his university and I have seen him preside over a peace conference - wherever he goes, an aura of vitality seems to follow him. It was another winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, the Frenchman d'Estournelles de Constant, who drew him into the work for peace and who first oriented his efforts. In 1907 he was elected president of the American branch of the Conciliation internationale which d'Estournelles himself had founded. While d'Estournelles' chief aim had been reconciliation between France and Germany and between France and England, Butler adopted a much wider program, and, as a result, the American branch rapidly became the most important in the whole organization. In my opinion it would be difficult to name another peace organization which has persisted in such effective, tenacious, and steady work for the cause of peace as has this American group under the presidency of Butler. With typically American practical common sense, he saw the need to establish this work on a sound economic footing, and it was primarily his influence that prompted Carnegie to establish the very substantial Endowment for International Peace in 19105. Butler himself became president of one of its sections, that concerned with «intercourse and education», which he finally linked to the American branch of the Conciliation internationale, and later he became head of the Endowment itself. But throughout these years, the kind of work he did remained basically the same. We can see at once that all this activity has been directed by a man of great knowledge and wide views. He has not confined himself merely to empty generalities but, on the contrary, has raised all the questions which might imperil international peace. He has had experts sent to examine potential causes of war in the Balkans, the Far East, and Mexico, and so has succeeded in compiling invaluable reports on a number of political danger spots. His main concern has always been the gathering of information on all kinds of international conditions and relationships, and his great ambition has been to create an «international mind», the will and the ability to examine every question from an international point of view which never forgets that in any dispute each of the two combatants may have his justification and consequently the right to a fair hearing. He himself has never failed in this obligation, and he has done more than most to draw attention to such a duty in all parts of the world. It is also worthy of mention that on one occasion four or five years ago he intervened in an actual situation, securing results that delighted many friends of peace. When Brind made his famous speech in April, 1927, proposing that France and the United States should agree to outlaw war, his appeal found no response in America until Butler took it up and successfully rallied public opinion to it. He himself had discussed the matter with Briand beforehand, and the work he then did6 drew America into the negotiations which, in the following year, resulted in what we know as the Kellogg Pact. People may hold differing opinions as to the practical effect of this pact, but it is at least a living proof of the development of the peace idea. It was no more than a just recognition that Briand should send particular words of thanks to Butler on the day the pact was signed. And it is only natural that in addition to Briand himself, two other Nobel Peace Prize winners, Sir Austen Chamberlain and Elihu Root, should have strongly supported Butler's candidacy for this year's prize. In the case of peace workers such as Butler and Jane Addams, it is often difficult to point to tangible and manifest results of their actions or to particular events in political life with which their names may be associated. Those who set their sights on awakening and educating public opinion cannot expect swift victories of the kind that win popular acclaim. Consequently, it has come about - and perhaps had to come about - that the Peace Prizes have passed over such patient pioneers as these and have gone to statesmen holding governmental positions of authority who had the power to transform efforts for peace into treaties and other political measures. But a statesman and the policies he represents reflect the social and intellectual conditions of his country. If his work is to endure, it must have a solidly developed foundation. Enterprises for peace such as the League of Nations, the Locarno Treaty, or the Kellogg Pact would have been impossible if they had not been backed by a desire and will for peace on the part of powerful sections of the people in all countries. Certainly, there are profound forces which shape the progress of society and of the state, forces which inevitably affect what we call peace policy. New interests and new ideals are born which direct nations toward new forms of organization. The idea of international peace and justice can perhaps never attain ultimate victory until our entire society is reconstructed upon a new foundation. Such is the context of progress in all fields of society. But any new idea which grows and prospers always needs men who can give it a clear and conscious form. Nothing in society ever moves forward of its own momentum; progress must always be sustained by the human thought, human will, and human action to transmute the need into a living social form. We should therefore recognize as a great historic mission the work of all those who help us to see the goal which, willingly or unwillingly, we should make our own, all those who help to unite popular thought and public will in positive action for social reconstruction. With every specific idea that they implant in the popular will, they take us another step along the road to the new society. It is to two such people that we now pay tribute. A long labor, rich in sacrifice offered in the cause of peace, is today honored by the Nobel Prize. Miss Addams and President Butler belong to those who have brought the ideals of peace to life in thousands and thousands of people. They have taught large sections of the population to demand peace from their leaders. They have created forces which will stimulate progress, and all those who aspire to a peaceful society on earth are deeply in their debt. From Nobel Lectures, Peace 1926-1950. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- * Mr. Koht, also at this time professor of history at the University of Oslo, delivered this speech in the auditorium of the Nobel Institute in Oslo on the afternoon of December 10, 1931. Because neither laureate was able to attend, Mr. Hoffman Philip, United States minister to Norway, accepted the prize on their behalf in a brief speech expressing their gratitude and that of the United States for the honor conferred. This translation of Mr. Koht's speech is based on the Norwegian text in Les Prix Nobel en 1931. 1. Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882), American essayist and philosopher. Henrik Arnold Wergeland (1808-1845), Norwegian poet, dramatist, and patriot. 2. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), German poet and dramatist. Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906), Norwegian poet and dramatist. Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson (1832-1910), Norwegian poet, novelist, and dramatist; recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature for 1903. 3. See Jane Addam's biography. 4. The International Congress of Women, with 1,500 delegates from 12 nations, assembled at The Hague on April 28, 1915, upon the invitation of the Dutch Committee of the International Suffrage Alliance of which Dr. Aletta Jacobs (1849-1929) was a leader. 5. Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), American industrialist, who gave $10,000,000 for the Endowment. 6. Among other things, Butler stirred up public discussion with the publication of an open letter in the New York Times (April 25, 1927). 1930 1932 The Nobel Peace Prize 1931 Presentation Speech Jane Addams Biography Other Resources Heroines of Peace Nicholas Murray Butler Biography Last modified March 1, 2001 Copyright© 2001 The Nobel Foundation The Official Web Site of The Nobel Foundation JANE ADDAMS* (Laura) Jane Addams (September 6, 1860-May 21, 1935) won worldwide recognition in the first third of the twentieth century as a pioneer social worker in America, as a feminist, and as an internationalist. She was born in Cedarville, Illinois, the eighth of nine children. Her father was a prosperous miller and local political leader who served for sixteen years as a state senator and fought as an officer in the Civil War; he was a friend of Abraham Lincoln whose letters to him began «My Dear Double D-'ed Addams». Because of a congenital spinal defect, Jane was not physically vigorous when young nor truly robust even later in life, but she became a graceful attractive woman after her spinal difficulty was remedied by surgery. In 1881 Jane Addams was graduated from the Rockford Female Seminary, the valedictorian of a class of seventeen, but was granted the bachelor's degree only after the school became accredited the next year as Rockford College for Women. In the course of the next six years she began the study of medicine but left it because of poor health, was hospitalized intermittently, traveled and studied in Europe for twenty-one months, and then spent almost two years in reading and writing and in considering what her future objectives should be. At the age of twenty-seven, during a second tour to Europe with her friend Ellen G. Starr, she visited a settlement house, Toynbee Hall, in London's East End. This visit helped to finalize the idea then current in her mind, that of opening a similar house in an underprivileged area of Chicago. In 1889 she and Miss Starr leased a large home built by Charles Hull at the corner of Halsted and Polk Streets. The two friends moved in, their purpose, as expressed later, being «to provide a center for a higher civic and social life; to institute and maintain educational and philanthropic enterprises and to investigate and improve the conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago»1. Miss Addams and Miss Starr made speeches about the needs of the neighborhood, raised money, convinced young women of well-to-do families to help, took care of children, nursed the sick, listened to outpourings from troubled people. By its second year of existence, Hull-House was host to two thousand people every week. There were kindergarten classes in the morning, club meetings for older children in the afternoon, and for adults in the evening more clubs or courses in what became virtually a night school. The first facility added to Hull-House was an art gallery, the second a public kitchen; then came a coffee house, a gymnasium, a swimming pool, a cooperative boarding club for girls, a book bindery, an art studio, a music school, a drama group, a circulating library, an employment bureau, a labor museum. As her reputation grew, Miss Addams was drawn into larger fields of civic responsibility. In 1905 she was appointed to Chicago's Board of Education and subsequently made chairman of the School Management Committee; in 1908 she participated in the founding of the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy and in the next year became the first woman president of the National Conference of Charities and Corrections. In her own area of Chicago she led investigations on midwifery, narcotics consumption, milk supplies, and sanitary conditions, even going so far as to accept the official post of garbage inspector of the Nineteenth Ward, at an annual salary of a thousand dollars. In 1910 she received the first honorary degree ever awarded to a woman by Yale University. Charmingly feminine by nature, Jane Addams was an ardent feminist by philosophy. In those days before women's suffrage she believed that women should make their voices heard in legislation and therefore should have the right to vote, but more comprehensively, she thought that women should generate aspirations and search out opportunities to realize them. For her own aspiration to rid the world of war, Jane Addams created opportunities or seized those offered to her to advance the cause. In 1906 she gave a course of lectures at the University of Wisconsin summer session which she published the next year as a book, Newer Ideals of Peace. She spoke for peace in 1913 at a ceremony commemorating the building of the Peace Palace at The Hague and in the next two years, as a lecturer sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation, spoke against America's entry into the First World War. In January, 1915, she accepted the chairmanship of the Women's Peace Party, an American organization, and four months later the presidency of the International Congress of Women convened at The Hague largely upon the initiative of Dr. Aletta Jacobs, a Dutch suffragist leader of many and varied talents. When this congress later founded the organization called the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Jane Addams served as president until 1929, as presiding officer of its six international conferences in those years, and as honorary president for the remainder of her life. Publicly opposed to America's entry into the war, Miss Addams was attacked in the press and expelled from the Daughters of the American Revolution, but she found an outlet for her humanitarian impulses as an assistant to Herbert Hoover in providing relief supplies of food to the women and children of the enemy nations, the story of which she told in her book Peace and Bread in Time of War (1922). After sustaining a heart attack in 1926, Miss Addams never fully regained her health. Indeed, she was being admitted to a Baltimore hospital on the very day, December 10, 1931, that the Nobel Peace Prize was being awarded to her in Oslo. She died in 1935 three days after an operation revealed unsuspected cancer. The funeral service was held in the courtyard of Hull-House. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- * Miss Addams did not deliver a Nobel lecture. Hospitalized at the time of the award ceremony in December, 1931, she later notified the Nobel Committee in April of 1932 that her doctors had decided it would be unwise for her to go abroad. 1. Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull-House, p. 112. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Selected Bibliography Addams, Jane. An extensive collection of Miss Addams' papers is deposited in the Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. Addams, Jane, A Centennial Reader, ed. by E. C. Johnson, with a prefatory note on Jane Addams' life by W. L. Neumann and an introduction by William O. Douglas. New York, Macmillan, 1960. Addams, Jane, Democracy and Social Ethics. New York, Macmillan, 1902. Republished with an introductory life of Jane Addams by A. F. Scott. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1964. Addams, Jane, The Excellent Becomes the Permanent. New York, Macmillan, 1932. Addams, Jane, The Long Roal of Woman's Memory. New York, Macmillan, 1916. Addams, Jane, Newer Ideals of Peace. New York, Macmillan, 1907. Addams, Jane, Peace and Bread in Time of War. New York, Macmillan, 1922. Addams, Jane, The Second Twenty Years at Hull-House: September 1909 to September 1929. New York, Macmillan, 1930. Addams, Jane, The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets. New York, Macmillan, 1909. Addams, Jane, Twenty Years at Hull-House: With Autobiographical Notes. New York Macmillan, 1910. Curti, Merle, «Jane Addams on Human Nature», Journal of the History of Ideas, 22 (April-June, 1961) 240-253. Farrell, John C., Beloved Lady: A History of Jane Addams' Ideas on Reform and Peace. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1967. Contains a major bibliography. Lasch, Christopher, The New Radicalism in America, 1889-1963: The Intellectual as a Social Type. London, Chatto & Windus, 1966. Linn, James W., Jane Addams: A Biography. New York, Appleton-Century, 1935. Tims, Margaret, Jane Addams of Hull House, 1860-1935. London, Allen & Unwin, 1961. From Nobel Lectures, Peace 1926-1950. 1930 1932 The Nobel Peace Prize 1931 Presentation Speech Jane Addams Biography Other Resources Heroines of Peace Nicholas Murray Butler Biography Last modified April 17, 2001 Copyright© 2001 The Nobel Foundation The Official Web Site of The Nobel Foundation Heroines of Peace The Nine Nobel Women By Irwin Abrams Antioch University First published September 22, 1997 [To the Norwegian Nobel Institute] Heroines of Peace: The Nine Nobel Women The Nobel Peace Prizes at their best set before us an array of great human spirits. The nine women Prizewinners clearly belong in this list. They come from a variety of backgrounds and represent a variety of forms of peace making. The earliest of these heroines of peace was the Austrian baroness who inspired the Prize, while the most recent was the Indian from Guatemala who rose to leadership overcoming poverty and oppression. They include the woman regarded as the greatest of her generation in the United States; the scholar and reformer who was the acknowledged intellectual leader of the American peace movement; two Northern Irish advocates of nonviolence who made a dramatic effort to resolve the longstanding violent conflict in their land; a saintly missionary working in the slums of Calcutta; a Swedish social reformer who became a cabinet minister and ambassador; and a Burmese intellectual who led the opposition to a brutal military dictatorship. They were not only of different nationalities and different classes, but of different faiths; among them were Catholics and freethinkers, a Buddhist and a Quaker. They worked against war in peace societies and in political life, as humanitarians and defenders of human rights. This small group of nine Laureates represents the diverse paths to peace which the Norwegian Nobel committees have recognized over the years. But they are most interesting in themselves; each has a fascinating story to tell. The purpose of this paper is to consider the lives and peace efforts of these nine laureates, picturing them as the members of the Nobel Committee described them in presenting them with their prizes at the award ceremonies. Thereafter we shall reflect on what, if anything they had in common. In the Appendix are some notes on the contributions of other women, the wives and mothers of the men who won the Prize. But first a few words about Alfred Nobel's intentions regarding women and the Prize and how the Norwegian committee have followed his wishes in this respect. Nobel, The Norwegian Nobel Committee, and Women Prizewinners The story has often been told of how Nobel had long been interested in peace but how it was his friend the peace activist Baroness Bertha von Suttner, who drew his attention to the international movement against war which was becoming organized in the 1890s and secured his financial support for her peace activities. In January 1893 he wrote her that he planned to set up a prize to be awarded "to him or her who would have brought about the greatest step toward advancing the pacification of Europe." In the will he drafted a few months later Nobel included a generous bequest for Baroness von Suttner's Austrian Peace Society and provided for prizes to be awarded every three years for intellectual and scientific achievements. These included efforts to promote the establishment of a European tribunal and were to be granted to the most deserving, whether "a Swede or a foreigner, a man or a woman." In the final draft of his will, Nobel omitted the last clause, as well as the bequest for the Austrian Peace Society, but he set up a prize for peace as one of his five prizes, and he clearly expected the Baroness to receive it. Four awards were made, however, before she finally received the prize in 1905. In 1901 and 1902 she was not even on the Committee's short list. In 1903 the Committee put her on the short list, but despite the support of most of the other peace leaders, who called her their "commander-in-chief," she was again passed over. In 1904 she lost out to the Institute of International Law, which added insult to injury, since when Nobel's will was being implemented, the Baroness, with her special knowledge of her friend's intentions, had strongly protested to the executors that Nobel had wanted the Prize to go only to individuals. In a speech earlier that year Nobel Committee Chairman Jörgen Lövland, in referring to the awards to the veterans of the peace movement, had spoken of "the men who had done this work." Small wonder that the Baroness just about gave up hope and was much surprised when the gold ring finally came around to her in 1905. This was due to the special effort of Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, the great writer, who was a member of the committee. When the Baroness came to deliver her Nobel lecture in the spring of 1906, Chairman Lövland, now foreign minister, spoke at the banquet about the great influence of women in history and how they could change the ideas of war and give men higher aims. It was however, twenty-six years later before the second woman, Jane Addams, was honored with the Prize. Addams had first been nominated in 1916 for her efforts to bring the First World War to an end and repeatedly thereafter. In 1923 the Committee's adviser recommended her in his report, and she had a distinguished list of supporters, including Woodrow Wilson, John Dewey, Felix Frankfurter, Robert LaFollette and Sidney Webb, but no Prize was awarded for that year. Four more times she was on the short list before she shared the divided Prize of 1932 with Nicholas Murray Butler. In the presentation speech, made in her absence, Professor Halvdan Koht said, "In honoring Jane Addams, we also render homage to the work which women can do for peace and human brotherhood." Apparently that was enough homage for the next fifteen years until in 1946 Emily Green Balch shared the Prize with John Mott of the YMCA. This time it took years for the next women laureates, Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan, even though the committee had had its first woman member since 1948. During the thirty years Mrs. Aase Lionaes served on the Committee, chairing it the last ten, the Williams-Corrigan award was the only one to women. Since then the committee has done better, honoring Mother Teresa in 1979, Alva Myrdal in 1982, Aung Sang Suu Kyi in 1991, and Rigoberta Menchú Tum in 1992. In the first 45 years of the Prizes, only three went to women, and of the 96 awards since 1901, only nine women have been Prizewinners. The committee's archives are open for research up to the Second World War, so we know that a number of women made the short list: The Quaker Priscilla Peckover and Annie Besant, theosophist and social reformer, both from England; from the United States, the peace activist Lucia Ames Mead, Belva Lockwood and Carrie Chapman Call and Elsa Brändström, the Swedish humanitarian. Others who might have been considered in the period included Dr. Aletta Jacobs of the Netherlands, feminist and activist; the activist Helene Stöcker and the artist Käthe Kollwitz of Germany; Christian socialist Muriel Lester and author Vera Brittain of England; and feminist and writer Oliver Schreiner of South Africa. In the years following the Second World War, there were several well qualified women candidates who were not named. In 1947 there was a proposal with the Cold War in mind, to share the prize between Eleanor Roosevelt who had done distinguished work on human rights in the United States and Alexandra Kollontai, the Soviet diplomat who had contributed to ending the Soviet-Finnish War. In 1948 Rosika Schwimmer of Hungary, who began her peace campaigning during the First World War, was nominated by a number of European parliamentarians. While it is true that during all these years it was difficult for a woman to rise to prominence in a male world, the Norwegian Nobel committees were apparently not without prejudice. Baroness Bertha von Suttner It is all the more remarkable that Baroness von Suttner won an international reputation at the beginning of the twentieth century. On a lecture tour of the United States in 1904 she was even received at the White House by President Theodore Roosevelt. Not the least of her achievements was her break with the military and aristocratic traditions of her family, first by deciding to earn her living as a governess and later by writing the anti-war novel Die Waffen Nieder ("Lay Down Your Arms"), which brought her into the peace movement. Eloping with the brother of the young ladies she was tutoring and going off with him to the Caucasus to become a writer was also not quite what a well-bred countess was expected to do. The Baroness was not able to come to Norway when her prize was announced in 1905 on the traditional day, December 10, and there was no presentation speech. The following April, she was introduced by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson who spoke of her "real influence on the growth of the peace movement and how in one of the most militaristic countries of Europe she had continued to cry, "Down with arms." Although laughed at first, her words received a hearing because they were uttered by a person of noble character and because they proclaimed humanity's greatest cause. Jane Addams The Norwegian Nobel Committee had waited so long to give the Prize to Jane Addams, that she was ill and unable to go to the award ceremony or to come later to present a Nobel lecture. In fact, on the very day of the award, December 10, 1931, she was being admitted to the hospital in Baltimore. ln failing health in her last years, Jane Addams died four years later. Professor Halvdan Koht gave the presentation speech for Addams and her co-recipient, Nicholas Murray Butler, both of whom were absent. Since Koht was a specialist in American history, he must have known what an unlikely pairing this represented, for during the First World War, Butler had strongly denounced those, like Addams, who had opposed the war. Koht paid due tribute to the war-time leadership of the International Congress of Women which met at The Hague in 1915 and led to a spectacular effort to end the war. He explained her opposition to the entry of the United States, which may well have kept an earlier Nobel committee from giving her the prize, in this way: "She held fast to the ideal of peace even during the difficult hours when other considerations and interests obscured it from her compatriots and drove them into the conflict." Toiling for peace during the war and for a true peace afterward, she spoke for the pacifist women of the world. For some reason Koht did not give specific mention of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, the organization she helped found and continued to lead. As she asked, the WILPF is on her tombstone along with Hull House, the famous settlement house she established. Fortunately, Koht's omission of WILPF is rectified in the official Nobel Foundation Directory. Koht went on to say, "Even when her views were at odds with public opinion, she never gave in, and in the end she regained the place of honors she had had before in the hearts of her people." This was very true. The Chicago City Council for example proclaimed that "she was the greatest woman who ever lived." Koht spoke of how Goethe, Henrik Ibsen, and Björnson had all seen women as representing "the highest and purest moral standards of society." Koht felt that women have a special role as peacemakers, speaking of "that love, that warm maternal feeling which renders murder and war so hateful to every woman." Addams herself wrote that as a life-giver and a life-nurturer, woman has a special feeling about war and peace. To Koht, "Jane Addams combines all the best feminine qualities which will help us to develop peace on earth." Without superlatives, perceptive observers, in whose hearts Addams may not have lost a place of honor, have given her the highest praise. William James declared that "she inhabited reality," and to Walter Lippman, "she was not only good, but great." Emily Green Balch Emily Greene Balch was a colleague of Jane Addams' in the effort to stop the First World War, her partner in the work of WILPF, and successor as its leader. In 1946 she herself shared a prize with the YMCA leader, John Mott. It came to her as the result of a successful campaign organized at the request of WILPF by its member, Mercedes Randall, who did a remarkable job of bringing Balch's indisputable qualifications before the Nobel committee and securing a large number of prominent supporters. Committee Chairman Gunnar Jahn gave a far fuller description of Balch's activities than Koht had devoted to Addams. He told of her landmark research on Slav immigrants to the U.S., of her twenty-year teaching of social economics at Wellesley College, which ended when she was dismissed because of her pacifist activities during World War I. In her next career, she was at the center of WILPF's international work, serving for a time as its secretary-general in the Geneva headquarters, and continuing to be a familiar figure at the League of Nations. Jahn was impressed with her practicality, her effort to improve international political relations by promoting international cooperation in other fields, and by her control of the facts in all her proposals. As an example he referred to her work to secure the withdrawal of the U. S. troops from Haiti in 1926 after eleven years of occupation. She went to Haiti with a delegation, showed great skill in investigating the situation, wrote most of the report, and fought to get the recommendations accepted by the government. Eventually they were all carried out and the troops withdrawn. Jahn referred to Balch's difficult decision in World War II, as an absolute pacifist who had joined the Quakers, to support the U.S. war effort to vanquish the evil which Hitlerism represented. She could not be unaffected by the fate of her WILPF colleagues and Jewish friends. Jahn commended Balch for her gradualism, as compared with the Utopianism of less patient peace workers. She continued to develop imaginative proposals for slow international progress through functional cooperation and came to be regarded by American peace activists as their intellectual leader. Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan When Egil Aarvik, vice-chairman of the committee presented the postponed 1976 prize to Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan in 1977, he began his speech with a graphic description of the tragic accident that had occurred the previous August on a street in Belfast in Northern Ireland. A car out of control, its driver an Irish Republican Army (IRA) gunman shot dead fleeing from British soldiers, smashed into a family out for a walk. Two of the children were killed outright, the third was mortally injured, and the mother critically injured. This senseless killing of innocent children produced a wave of revulsion against the violence which had been sweeping Northern Ireland, with Catholic IRA members using murder and terror to drive out the British, Protestant extremists doing the same in response, and many innocent victims killed as a consequence. The movement was led by Betty Williams, a housewife who came upon the scene after she heard the shot, and Mairead Corrigan, the young aunt of the dead children. Aarvik told how the two women led marches in which Protestants and Catholics walked together in demonstrations for peace and against violence. That so many people in Northern Ireland had recognized that violence cannot bring social justice, Aarvik declared, gave hope that this could be "the dawn of a new day bringing lasting peace to the sorely tried people of Ulster." Williams and Corrigan "have shown us what ordinary people can do to promote peace." They had the courage to take the first step. "They did so in the name of humanity and love of their neighbour; someone had to start forgiving. ... Love of one's neighbor is one of the foundation stones of the humanism on which our western civilization is built." It is vitally important that it "should shine forth when hatred and revenge threaten to dominate." Theirs was "a courageous unselfish act that proved an inspiration to thousands, that lit a light in the darkness..." Unfortunately, that light was dimmed in Northern Ireland until very recently. The Peace People, the organization which emerged from the movement, declined in numbers and influence. Betty Williams emigrated to the United States, where she teaches in a university and has become a stirring lecturer on peace. Mairead Corrigan Maguire has continued to work with the Peace People in Belfast and has also effectively carried her message of nonviolence into other countries. Quakers in the seventeenth century thought of themselves as "God's ordinaries." When ordinary people rise to face challenge, they may go far beyond the ordinary. Mother Teresa Professor John Sanness, who chaired the committee, gave the speech of presentation for the 1979 prize to Mother Teresa. After speaking of the many paths to peace which had been recognized in previous awards, he explained what was special in this one: Can any political, social, or intellectual feat of engineering, on the international or on the national plane, however effective and rational, however idealistic and principled its protagonists may be, give us anything but a house built on a foundation of sand, unless the spirit of Mother Teresa inspires the builders and takes its dwelling in their building? Sannes explained that this spirit is rooted in the Christian faith. "She sees Christ in every human being, and this in her eyes makes man sacred... The hallmark of her work has been respect for the individual and the individual's worth and dignity. The loneliest and the most wretched, the dying destitute, the abandoned lepers, have been received by her and her Sisters with warm compassion devoid of condescension, based on this reverence for Christ in Man." Sannes told how Mother Teresa was born into a Roman Catholic Albanian family living in Skopje, capital of the Yugoslav republic of Macedonia. At the age of twelve she had felt the call to help the poor, and a few years later decided to work in India. At the age of eighteen she joined the Irish order of Loeto and went to teach in their girls' school in Calcutta. After sixteen years she felt a new call, to work in the Calcutta slums. There she started a new order, the Missionaries of Charity, committed to serve the poorest of the poor, which soon spread to many other countries. Working for people who were not of her race, religion or nationality, Mother Theresa had transcended all barriers. "With her message she is able to reach through to something innate in every human kind--- if for no other purpose than to create a potential, a seed for good." "She promotes peace in the most fundamental manner," Sanness concluded, "by her confirmation of the inviolability of human dignity." Alva Myrdal Chairman Egil Aarvik of the committee gave the presentation speech at the award ceremony when the 1982 prize was shared between Alva Myrdal and Alfonso García Robles of Mexico. Aarvik explained that in recognizing two prominent leaders in the disarmament movement the committee wanted at the same time to give that movement a helping hand. Myrdal had headed the Swedish delegation to the U.N. Disarmament Committee from 1962 to1973 and had produced one of the best books on the disarmament race. Her social commitment went back to the 1930s, "when she played a prominent part in developing the Swedish welfare state. She was a staunch champion of women's liberation and equal rights." Aarvik belonged to a more conservative part of the political spectrum, but he said that on one point all could agree: "her name has become a rallying point for men and women who still cling to the belief that in the last resort mind is bound to triumph over matter." Myrdal was not only a champion of reason but in her writing and in all her activities one of its most brilliant practitioners. She was the first woman to be appointed head of a department in the United Nations Secretariat, and she had served her country with distinction as a cabinet member and as ambassador to India. So glowing was her record in all her assignments, so many honors had been heaped upon her, that Aarvik seems not to have recognized that, as she pointed out to me, "I had not held my first important position until I was forty years old." The career of her husband, Gunnar Myrdal, had taken priority at times when she had been offered high positions. Of all the honors she had received, Myrdal regarded the Nobel Peace Prize as "the peak." She confided to me, however, that the Norwegian People's Prize was "dearer to my heart." In 1981 when she had been nominated once again for the Nobel and the committee had given the prize to the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, there was such an outcry of criticism in Norway that a popular movement arose which raised sixty thousand dollars to be presented to her as the Norwegian People's Prize. The ceremony at the Oslo city hall in February 1982 had touched her deeply. Aarvik referred to what Myrdal had said in accepting the first Einstein Peace Prize: "I have, despite all disillusionment, never, never allowed myself to feel like giving up. This is my message today; it is not worthy of a human being to give up." Aarvik emphasized this message, no doubt thinking of the failure of the U.N. disarmament session earlier that year. He said that the committee intended the 1982 peace prize to go to "people who are not satisfied merely to draw attention to alarming trends, but who also devote their energy and their ability to turning the tide." Certainly such a one was Alva Myrdal. Aung San Suu Kyi At the ceremony for Aung San Suu Kyi in December 1991, she was still being held in detention by the military dictatorship in Myanmar (Burma) and could only be represented by her two sons, her husband and her picture facing the audience. In his speech presenting the prize to her sons, Professor Francis Sejersted, chairman of the committee, declared, "Her absence fills us with fear and anxiety," but he felt we could also have confidence and hope. He went on to sum up the meaning of her prize: In the good fight for peace and reconciliation, we are dependent on persons who set examples, persons who can symbolize what we are seeking and mobilize the best in us. Aung San Suu Kyi is just such a person. She unites deep commitment and tenacity with a vision in which the end and the means form a single unit. Its most important elements are: democracy, respect for human rights, reconciliation between groups, non-violence, and personal and collective discipline. The sources of her inspiration, Sejersted explained, were Mahatma Gandhi, about whom she had learned when her mother was ambassador to India, and her father, Aung San, the leader in Burma's struggle for liberation. She was only two when he was assassinated, but she had made his life a center of her studies. From Gandhi she drew her commitment to nonviolence, from her father the understanding that leadership was a duty and that one can only lead in humility and with the confidence and respect of the people to be led. Both were examples for her of independence and modesty, and Aung San represented what she called "a profound simplicity." We must add that undergirding her political philosophy in spirit and deed has always been her Buddhist faith, which is also the foundation for her belief in human rights. In championing human rights in her political opposition to the military dictatorship, she needed to be fearless. Sejersted referred to the incident during her election campaigning when she courageously faced a detachment of soldiers, whose officer lined them up in front of her, prepared to fire if she continued to walk down that street, which she did. Several times in his speech Sejersted cited the collection of her essays, entitled Freedom from Fear, which her husband, Michael Aris, edited and published before the ceremony, so that her voice could be heard beyond the reach of her oppressors. The title essay begins, "It is not power that corrupts but fear. Fear of losing power corrupts those who wield it and fear of the scourge of power corrupts those who are subject to it." Fearlessness is the best response to governmental violence. In conclusion she writes that "truth, justice and compassion... are often the only bulwarks against ruthless power." These are the teachings of Buddha. Sejersted told how Suu Kyi spent many years abroad, first when with her diplomat mother in her younger years, then studying at Oxford, working at the United Nations in New York, marrying Aris, a British Tibetan scholar, starting a family when they were in Bhutan, finally ending up in England, after scholarly assignments in Japan and India. Burma was always on her mind and heart, however, especially after the military seized power in 1962. When she married Aris, she told him that one day she must return to Burma when she was needed. It was to nurse her dying mother that she returned from England, but as the daughter of Aung San, she could not stay aloof when she saw the government brutally repressing a popular movement in opposition. She headed a political party in the elections which the military permitted, but she was so successful that even before election day, she was ordered confined to her home. Nevertheless, her party won by a great majority, after which its other leaders were jailed. "We ordinary people, I believe," Sejersted declared, "feel that with her courage and her high ideals, Aung San Suu Kyi brings out something of the best in us... The little woman under house arrest stands for a positive hope. Knowing she is there gives us confidence and faith in the power of good." As of this writing Suu Kyi is still under detention, separated from her family, despite efforts of many governments and the United Nations to secure her liberation. A group of Nobel peace laureates only got as far as Thailand in an attempt to bring their petition to the military dictators who hold her. In 1994, however, a U.S. congressman was permitted to see her, and, as a result of mediation by a Buddhist monk, she had a conference with members of the government. There is now more hope. Rigoberta Menchú Tum It was announced in October 1992 that the prize would go to Rigoberta Menchú, a Mayan Indian of Guatemala "in recognition of her work for social justice and ethnocultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples." The decision was generally applauded, but conservative critics charged that Menchú had taken part in violent actions of the Guatemalan guerrillas against the government. Previous Nobel prizes for champions of human rights had been given only to those who used nonviolent methods, like Aung San Suu Kyi of Burma. It was true that Menchú had every provocation to take up arms, and two of her sisters had indeed joined the guerrillas. Government soldiers had brutally murdered their mother and brother because their father opposed the landowners, and finally the soldiers had set fire to the Spanish embassy where the father and other compesinos were making a peaceful protest and burned them all to death. Menchú tells this terrible story in I, Rigoberta Menchú, An Indian Woman in Guatemala, a book composed of a series of reminiscences she dictated in Spanish to the anthropologist Elisabeth Burgos-Debray. That Menchú did not turn to violence, but to political and social work for her people, is the reason why she received the prize. She became an active member of the Committee for Campesino Unity and then helped found the Revolutionary Christians. Menchú explained that "we understood revolutionary in the real meaning of the word 'transformation.' If I had chosen the armed struggle, I would be in the mountains now." Committee Chairman Sejersted in his presentation speech emphasized the meaning of Menchú's decision. He spoke of "the brutalizing effect of the use of violence. Whoever commits an act of violence will lose his humanity. Thus, violence breeds violence and hate breeds hate." How can one break out of this circle, especially when one is confronted with the blind violence of the other side? An answer can be found in "the shining individual examples of people who manage to preserve their humanity in brutal and violent surroundings, of persons who for that very reason compel our special respect and admiration. Such people give us a hope that there are ways out of the vicious circle." To Sejersted, "even in the most brutal situations, one must retain one's faith that there is a minimum of human feelings in all of us. Rigoberta Menchú Tum has preserved that faith." Her whole life story represents a remarkable achievement. Born in abject poverty among a suppressed people, working since the age of eight --- "I never had a childhood" --- she managed to get some minimal education in her church, where she first showed her potential ability, taught herself Spanish so that she could tell the world of the sufferings of her people, and, driven into exile in Mexico in fear of her life because of her political activites, she developed the skills of leadership and diplomacy until, as the prize announcement states, "Today, Rigoberta Menchú stands as a vivid symbol of peace and reconciliation across ethnic, cultural and social dividing lines, in her own country, on the American continent and in the world." Conclusion What did all these women peace Laureates have in common? They were all women of high ideals, prepared to work and sacrifice to bring something better into being, and they labored in the certainty that their objectives would eventually be realized. They all carried within that sacred flame, which Gunnar Jahn perceived in Emily Greene Balch, which inspired them to struggle against odds, to withstand disappointments and defeats, to resolve never to give up. They shared a faith in humanity, whether born of religious conviction or humanism. Most displayed remarkable courage. Not all faced the aimed rifle, as did Aung San Suu Kyi, or had to hide from the soldiers, as did Rigoberta Menchú Tum. But it took courage to withstand the slings and arrows of the militaristic press of Imperial Germany or the war-time patriotic fervor in the United States, just as it took courage to take the first step to break the circle of violence in Northern Ireland. Sejersted said that "in the good fight for peace and reconciliation, we are dependent on persons who set examples, persons who can symbolize what we are seeking and mobilize the best in us." That all the women Laureates have done for us, knowing that they are there and have been there "gives us confidence and faith in the power of good." In speaking of Jane Addams, Professor Koht referred to "the best feminine qualities which will help us to develop peace on earth." Above all, however, what these nine Nobel Women have shown us is the potential of the human spirit. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Paper presented for the Conference: Peace and War Issues: Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in Historical Perspective November 11-12, 1994 Rutgers University © Copyright 1994 Irwin Abrams 913 Xenia Avenue Yellow Springs, Ohio 45387 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Appendix Some Notes on Nobel Women in the Supporting Cast While only nine women have won the Peace Prize, the role of women has been important in the lives of many of the Laureates, the mothers who reared them and the wives who supported them in their peace crusades. Chief Albert Lutuli (1960), Lord Cecil (1937), and Lord Boyd-Orr (1949) all dedicated their autobiographies to their wives (Lutuli to his mother as well). In the papers of Frédéric Passy (1901) there is a loving poem to his wife, and Eli Ducommun (1902) wrote a beautiful little poem for Adele, "Ange du Foyer," that was published in his Derniers Sourires. Matilde Bajer did much of the typing of Fredrik Bajer (1908), and was no doubt responsible for his feminst leanings. Ducommun was also an early promoter of women's rights. Boyd-Orr's wife typed his letters with two fingers after he gave all the Prize money away. His friends thought he should have hired a secretary. Whenever he traveled, he took her along, and he would confide to the hotel managers that they were on their honeymoon. As a friend wrote, after fifty years they still were. The wife of Albert Schweitzer (1952) changed her career plans and trained as a nurse, so that she could help him when he went to Lambaréné. Philip Baker met Irene Noel when working with the Friends Ambulance Unit in World War I, and after they were married he became Noel-Baker (1959). Cecil said that proposing to Nelly was "the cleverest thing he ever did." Those of us who saw Danuta Walesa in action in Oslo may well think that this was also the case with Lech Walesa (1983). Linus Pauling (1962) said at Oslo that his Prize should have been shared with Ava Helen Pauling. It was also she who had drawn him into work for peace, and they had worked closely together for the cause. Marion Wiesel has been a tremendous influence upon her husband Elie (1986). We read in The Accident and other early books how he forswore love as a survivor of the Holocaust. Even after they were married, he had reservations about bringing a child into this dark world. She has brightened his life. And is the translator of his books. The wife of Léon Jouhaux (1951) was a remarkable person. When Léon and other French notables were detained by the Laval government and the Germans, she handled relations with the jailers as the only one fluent in German. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1964) married the attractive Coretta Scott thinking she would be the ideal minister's wife. During his lifetime she was very much the mater familiae. He expected her to stay home with the children when he began marching, although on some occasions he let her come along. His hero Gandhi has been called by feminists "a male chauvinist." But it was only after King's death that Coretta has come into her own and shown her leadership abilities. General George C. Marshall (1953) married a beautiful Southern belle, but he discovered that she was sickly and could never have any children. This was a severe disappointment to Marshall, who would have been a fine father. His second wife was a great support to Marshall. After Woodrow Wilson (1919) became ill, his wife became of great importance. It is not clear however, that she had any influence on his peacemaking. The wife of Ludwig Quidde remained in Munich when he fled to Geneva from Nazi Germany. He had an affair there and did not want her to join him. The pretty secretary I met when I visited him in 1937, was not the one. Quidde did soften his public comments about the Nazi regime in order not to bring reprisal upon his wife. And the hand that rocked the cradle? The mothers of the Laureates? In many cases these were the most formative and crucial influences in their lives. The mother of René Cassin (1968) saved his life when he was invalided home in World War I with a stomach wound. The doctors felt it was inoperable and sent him to the terminal ward. His mother was serving as a nurse in that hospital and persuaded a surgeon to operate. He lived to almost ninety. In several cases mothers have had an important religious influence. This was true of Wiesel, of Father Dominique Pire (1958) and of Mother Teresa (1979). Father Pire spoke enthusiastically about his mother "as a ship in full sail," more venturesome, more spirited than his bureaucratic father. Mother Teresa's mother was a pillar of the Catholic Church in Skopje. After her father died when she was young, the visitors at their home were no longer political figures, but Church people. The mother was a deeply religious soul and always helping those in need, an example for the little girl who would grow up to become the Saint of Calcutta. Lord Cecil spoke glowingly of his mother in his memoirs. After she died, his father, the prime minister, was never the same. Lord Cecil said his mother lived life intensely, everything she did, she entered into, heart and soul. The mother of Sean McBride (1974) was an Irish beauty of whom the poets sang. His father left the family, went back to Ireland from France, and was executed after the Easter Uprising. It was she who brought Sean up, and when they returned to Ireland, she played a political role as well in the independence movement, which he joined as a young revolutionary. Lutulu's grandmother was "a lady of the court," something of a concubine, who quite illegally and unconventionally returned to Natal with her younger daughter, who married a Christian minister and became Lutuli's mother. After the father's death, she was determined that her son would get an education and took in washing to pay for his school books. He pays tribute to her in his memoirs. Ralph Bunche (1950) was raised by his grandmother after the death of his parents. She was responsible for seeing to it that he started up the educational ladder, despite the meager resources that they had. He wrote of her in Reader's Digest as his "Most Unforgettable Character," and at a Fisk commencement he said, "She was a tiny woman, but a personality of indomitable will and invincible moral and spiritual strength." He always remembered how she had told him that he would meet obstacles in life, but he should "go out into the world with your head high and keep it high all the time." The administrative abilities of Dag Hammarskjöld (1961) may have come from his father, but the poetic and religious and intuitive genes came from his mother. He felt that life had been hard for her because of the frequent absences of his father on official business, and this was one of the reasons why he never married, because he did not want to subject a wife to his life as a never-resting public servant. Emily Greene Balch (1946) wrote her mother "was the center of my life and its chief influence as long as she lived." She was seventeen when her mother died. Aung San Suu Kyi (1991) was only two years old when her father was assassinated, and it was her mother who raised her. Daw Khin Kyi was an able woman who served her country in various capacities, including as ambassador to India. Her daughter wrote that her father married a woman who had not only the courage and warmth he needed in his life's companion but also the steadfastness and dignity to uphold his ideals after he was gone. On word that her mother had suffered a severe stroke, Suu Kyi immediately returned to Burma from England to take care of her until she died. Bibliographical Notes Much of this paper is based upon my previous writings on the Nobel Peace Prize: The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates. An Illustrated Biographical History (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1988), with bibliographies, "The Many Meanings of the Nobel Peace Prize," The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates. The Meaning and Acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize in the Prizewinners' Countries (Frankfurt-am-Main Peter Lang, 1994), eds. Karl Holl and Anne C. Kjelling, 13-33," The Odd Couple," Scanorama, 23, 11 (November 1994), 18-20. My essays on Aung Sang Suu Kyi and Rigoberta Menchú Tum were published in The Nobel Prize Annual 1991 (New York: IMG, 1992), 76-85 and the Nobel Prize Annual 1992 (N.Y.: IMG, 1993), 76-87. Volumes in this series are available from International Management Group, 1320 Centre St., Suite 206, Newton Center, MA 02159-2444, USA. The catalogue of the exhibit organized by the League of Nations and Historical Collections Unit of the United Nations Library in Geneva on the 150th anniversary of Bertha Von Suttner's birth includes articles by leading authorities on the Baroness and on all the women Nobel Peace Laureates and other women peace leaders, along with description of the exhibit and bibliographies: U.N. Library, Geneva: Bertha von Suttner (1843-1993) and Other Women in Pursuit of Peace (Geneva: United Nations, 1993). My contribution was "'Chère Baronne et Amie...' Letters of Alfred Nobel and Bertha von Suttner," pp.9-13. The presentation and other speeches at the Oslo award ceremonies are published every year on the previous year's Prizes in the Nobel Foundation's Les Prix Nobel (Stockholm: Almquist & Wiksell). For this paper I used the following volumes: 1977 (Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan), 33-37, 276-286; 1979 (Mother Teresa), 34-39, 220-225; 1982 (Alva Myrdal), 31-37, 220-228; 1991 (Aung San Suu Kyi), 34-42; 1992 (Rigoberta Menchú Tum), 31-34, 157-179. Earlier speeches are published in Frederick W. Haberman, Nobel Lectures. Peace . 3 vols. (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1972), 1.81-94 (Bertha von Suttner); 2. 125-135 (Jane Addams, 325-353 (Emily Greene Balch). Recently published: Aung San Suu Kyi, Freedom from Fear and Other Writings, ed., Michael Aris (New York: Penguin, 1991); I, Rigoberta Menchú Tum. An Indian Woman in Guatemala, ed., Elisabeth Burgos Debray, transl., Ann Wright (London & New York: Verso, 1984), Steven Schroeder, "Towards a Higher Identity: An Interview with Mairead Corrigan Maguire." (Christian Century, 111, 18 (April 20, 1994), 414-416. Contents of this article: Heroines of Peace: the Nine Nobel Women Nobel, the Norwegian Nobel Committee, and Women Prizewinners Baroness Bertha von Suttner Jane Addams Emily Green Balch Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan Mother Teresa Alva Myrdal Aung San Suu Kyi Rigoberta Menchú Tum Conclusion Appendix Some notes on Nobel women in the supporting cast Bibliographical notes Print this article Last modified October 5, 2000 Copyright© 2001 The Nobel Foundation The Official Web Site of The Nobel Foundation Jane Addams Hull House Association is a non-profit social service agency dedicated to helping people build better lives for themselves and their families. For more than a century, the Chicago-based agency has continued the leadership and vision of our founder Jane Addams, who is credited with starting the field of social work. Hull House Association takes a community-focused approach to solving social problems by fostering the spirit of "neighbors helping neighbors." Jane Addams Medal Dinner Annual Benefit to Honor Arthur and Joanne Velasquez September 25, 2001 – Westin River North Hotel, 320 N. Dearborn, Chicago. Photography Show Hunt Gallery of Jane Addams Center July 22 - September 9, 2001 Last Updated 07/06/01 © Hull House Association Swarthmore College Peace Collection, 500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA 19083, USA -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- J A N E A D D A M S A Short List of Books By and About Addams THESE BOOKS AND MAGAZINES ARE APPROPRIATE FOR USE IN SCHOOL PROJECTS: Jane Addams by Marshall W. Fishwick and the Editors of Silver Burdett, Illustrious Americans Series (Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett Company), 1968 Jane Addams by Jane Hovde, Makers of America Series (New York New York: Facts on File), 1989 Jane Addams by Mary Kittredge, American Women of Achievement Series (New York, New York: Chelsea House Publishers), 1988 Jane Addams, a Photo Biography, by John Riley, Greensboro, (North Carolina: First Biographies, an Imprint of Morgan Reynolds, Inc.), 2000 [appropriate for very early readers] Jane Addams by Leslie A. Wheeler, Pioneers in Change Series (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Silver Burdett Press), 1990 "Jane Addams, 1860-1935," Cobblestone (Cobblestone Publishing Company, Peterborough, NH); Vol. 20:3, March 1999 Jane Addams: Freedom's Innovator, by Deborah A. Parks (Alexandria, Virginia: TimeLife Books), 2000 Jane Addams: Nobel Prize Winner and Founder of Hull House by Bonnie Carman Harvey, Historical American Biographies Series (Berkeley Heights, New Jersey: Enslow Publishers, Inc.), 1999 The Many Faces of Hull-House: the Photographs of Wallace Kirkland edited by Mary Ann Johnson (Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press), 1989 100 Years at Hull-House by Mary Lynn McCree Bryan and Allen F. Davis (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press), 1969, 1990 [for use by older students] Peace and Bread: The Story of Jane Addams by Stephanie Sammartino McPherson (Minneapolis, Minnesota: Carolrhoda Books Inc.), 1993 Twenty Years at Hull-House by Jane Addams [with an introduction and notes by James Hurt] (Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press), 1990 [for use by older students; other editions of this book by Addams are available as well]. The Gutenberg Project offers a link to an on-line copy of this classic work by Jane Addams -- you may search the site by author or title. For more published resources by or about Jane Addams, search the on-line catalog of Swarthmore College Library (by author or by subject). Exhibit Home Page | Portraits of Jane Addams | Portraits of Jane Addams' Family | Photographs of Hull- House | Jane Addams Collection Checklist | Swarthmore College Peace Collection | Swarthmore College -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- For more information on this or other questions, contact Wendy Chmielewski, Curator, at or call 610-328-8557. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This page written by Anne Yoder, Archivist. Last updated April 2001 [Note: This page was created using Claris Home Page 3 on a Macintosh, and viewed with Netscape Navigator 4.07. The fonts, colors of text and backgrounds, as well as the quality of the photographs, do not translate well when using other Web browers such as Internet Explorer.] top of page Swarthmore College Peace Collection, 500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA 19081 U.S.A. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- J A N E A D D A M S COLLECTION Papers, 1838-date (bulk 1880-1935) Document Group: 001 Provenance: Donated by Jane Addams and her heirs Size of Collection: 130 linear feet Restrictions: None Microfilm: Yes [see below for details] Finding Aid: Checklist revised by Anne Yoder, Dec. 1996 This checklist is the property of the Swarthmore College Peace Collection. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TABLE OF CONTENTS Historical Introduction Provenance of Collection Scope and Contents of Collection Arrangement of Collection Series 1: Correspondence, 1870-1937 [Boxes 1-23 microfilmed; Boxes 24-29 partially microfilmed] Series 2: Envelopes from Jane Addams' Correspondence and Reference Material [partially microfilmed] Series 3: Speeches and Publications, 1878-1935 [microfilmed] Series 4: Papers Related to Jane Addams, 1877- , undated [not microfilmed, except for scattered items] Series 5: Photographs [not microfilmed] Series 6: Miscellaneous Papers [microfilmed] Series 7: Papers of John Huy Addams, 1838-1881 [not microfilmed] Series 8: Papers of Addams Family and Extended Family, 1840-1881, 1908 [not microfilmed] Series 9: Photographs [not microfilmed] Series 10: Books from John Huy Addams' Cedarville, Illinois Lending Library [not microfilmed] Series 11: Clippings, 1892- , undated [microfilmed] Series 12: Reviews of Books by Jane Addams [microfilmed] Series 13: Clippings on Hull-House, 1900-1935 [microfilmed] Series 13A: Miscellaneous Hull-House Material [microfilmed] Series 14: Reference Material of Jane Addams [microfilmed] Series 15: Oversize Material [microfilmed] Series 16: Rockford Seminary Magazine [not microfilmed] Series 17: Miscellaneous Clippings [not microfilmed] Series 18: Material Received from Mary Addams Hulbert in 1979 [not microfilmed] Oversize Material [Documents, Graphics, Photographs] Sound/Video Recordings Memorabilia/Realia Photographs (4" x 5", 5" x 7", 8" x 10", and Oversize) Other Addendum A: Table of Contents for the Microfilm Edition of The Jane Addams Papers (UMI) By Series (DG 01) Addendum B: Table of Contents for the Microfilm Edition of The Jane Addams Papers (UMI) By Microfilm Reel Number [not available on the Web] Online Full-Text Speeches & Writings of Jane Addams Bibliography of Books About Jane Addams for School Projects -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jane Addams Photograph Exhibit Swarthmore College Peace Collection | Swarthmore College Top of Page For more information contact Wendy Chmielewski, Curator, at or call 610-328-8557. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [Note: This page was created using Claris Home Page 3 on a Macintosh, and viewed with Netscape Navigator 4.07. The colors of text and backgrounds, as well as the quality of the photographs, do not translate well when using other Web browers such as Internet Explorer.] This page written by Anne Yoder, Archivist. Last updated October 1997. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Third Annual Hull-House Conference, September 21-22, 2001: Hull-House Magazine and the Chicago Cultural Front, 1930-1945 Hold this date! On the morning of October 6, the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum will be hosting a workshop for teachers interested in Metro History Fair topics that relate to the activities of Hull-House as a settlement house and Hull-House residents as reformers and /or revolutionaries. Museum staff will provide information about potential topics and resources. Chicago Museum Week is a landmark initiative offering 2 for 1 admission to a wide range of Chicago museums from September 17-23, 2001. Last year, Chicago became the first major city in the U.S. to organize and present such a program. Spearheaded by Mayor Daley and the Chicago Department of Cultural Affairs, Museum Week is made possible by Ford Motor Company, founding sponsor of the initiative. Museum Week is designed to bring in new audiences and increase public awareness of the richness and variety of exhibitions and programs presented year-round by the city's museums. Free trolley service between all participating institutions will be provided during Museum Week. For more information on Museum Week and other events in Chicago, call 1-877-CHICAGO, or visit The Jane Addams Hull-House Museum is on the West trolley route. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Jane Addams' Hull-House Museum, owned and operated by the University of Illinois at Chicago, is a historic site and memorial to Jane Addams, her innovative settlement house programs and associates, and the neighborhood they served. Housed in two original Hull-House buildings, the Museum is an internationally recognized symbol of multicultural understanding, educational innovation, social service, urban research, social reform and a commitment to humanitarian concerns. Restored by the University in the mid-1960s, the two building Hull-House complex is both a National and Chicago Historic Landmark. The Hull Mansion, pictured above, was built in 1856 and occupied by Jane Addams in 1889. The interior of this building, where Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr began their world famous social settlement, has been restored to look as it did in the early days of Hull-House. Original furnishings, paintings, photographs and rotating exhibits recreate the history of the settlement and the work of its residents. Next door is the Residents' Dining Hall, an Arts and Crafts style building added to Hull-House in 1905. Audio-visual presentations on the history of the settlement and the neighborhood are shown on the second floor. The first floor of this building is currently undergoing restoration. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Museum is open to individual visitors during the following hours. Group Tours are available with advance reservations. HOURS: Weekdays 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Sunday noon to 5 p.m. ADMISSION: Admission is free. ADDRESS: JANE ADDAMS HULL-HOUSE MUSEUM The University of Illinois at Chicago 800 S. Halsted Chicago, IL 60607-7017 PHONE: (312) 413-5353 Frank Lloyd Wright and Hull-House, 1901 and 2001 Conference Pots of Promise Exhibit -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TO LEARN MORE ABOUT JANE ADDAMS AND HULL-HOUSE: Biography of Jane Addams Chronology of Jane Addams List of Hull-House Firsts SUGGESTIONS FOR ADDITIONAL READING: Works By Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams For Young Readers Works About Hull-House Works About the Women of Hull-House TO LEARN MORE A BOUT THE JANE ADDAMS COLLEGE OF SOCIAL WORK: Jane Addams College of Social Work Home Page -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Last Updated: 8/10/01 Questions and comments can be addressed to: This page maintained by P. Glowacki  BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF JANE ADDAMS Born in Cedarville, Illinois on September 6, 1860 and graduated from Rockford College in 1882, Jane Addams founded the world famous social settlement Hull-House on Chicago's Near West Side in 1889. From Hull House, where she lived and worked until her death in 1935, Jane Addams built her reputation as the country's most prominent woman through her writing, her settlement work, and her international efforts for world peace. Around Hull-House, which was located at the corner of Polk and Halsted Streets, immigrants to Chicago crowded into a residential and industrial neighborhood. Italians, Russian and Polish Jews, Irish, Germans, Greeks and Bohemians predominated. Jane Addams and the other residents of the settlement provided services for the neighborhood, such as kindergarten and daycare facilities for children of working mothers, an employment bureau, an art gallery, libraries, and music and art classes. By 1900 Hull House activities had broadened to include the Jane Club (a cooperative residence for working women), the first Little Theater in America, a Labor Museum and a meeting place for trade union groups. The residents of Hull-House formed an impressive group: Jane Addams, Florence Kelley, Dr. Alice Hamilton, Julia Lathrop, Ellen Gates Starr, Sophonisba Breckinridge, and Grace and Edith Abbott among them. From their experiences in the Hull-House neighborhood, the Hull-House residents and their supporters forged a powerful reform movement. Among the projects that they launched were the Immigrants' Protective League, The Juvenile Protective Association, the first juvenile court in the nation, and a Juvenile Psychopathic Clinic (later called the Institute for Juvenile Research). Through their efforts, the Illinois legislature enacted protective legislation for women and children and in 1903 passed a strong child labor law and an accompanying compulsory education law. With the creation of the Federal Children's Bureau in 1912 and the passage of a federal child labor law in 1916, the Hull-House reformers saw their efforts expanded to the national level. Jane Addams wrote prolifically on topics related to Hull-House activities, producing eleven books and numerous articles, as well as maintaining an active speaking schedule nationwide and throughout the world. She also played an important role in many local and national organizations. A founder of the Chicago Federation of Settlements in 1894, she also helped to establish the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers in 1911. She was a leader in the Consumers League and served as the first woman president of the National Conference of Charities and Corrections (later the National Conference of Social Work). She was chairman of the Labor Committee of the General Federation of Women's Clubs, vice-president of the Campfire Girls, on the executive board of the National Playground Association, the National Child Labor Committee and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (founded 1909). In addition, she actively supported the campaign for woman suffrage and the founding of the American Civil Liberties Union (1920). In the early years of the twentieth century Jane Addams became involved in the peace movement, becoming an important advocate of internationalism. This interest grew during the First World War, when she participated in the International Congress of Women at the Hague in 1915. She maintained her pacifist stance after the United States entered the war in 1917, working through the Women's Peace Party, which became the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in 1919. She was the WILPF's first president. As a result of her work, she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931. Jane Addams died in Chicago on May 21, 1935. She was buried in Cedarville, her childhood home. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TO LEARN MORE ABOUT JANE ADDAMS AND HULL-HOUSE: Chronology of Jane Addams List of Hull-House Firsts SUGGESTIONS FOR ADDITIONAL READING: Works By Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams For Young Readers Works About Hull-House Works About The Women of Hull-House Click here to return to the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum HOME PAGE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- JANE ADDAMS' HULL-HOUSE MUSEUM The University of Illinois at Chicago 800 S. Halsted Street Chicago, IL 60607-7017 (312) 413-5353 Last Updated: 2/27/97 Questions and comments can be addressed to: CHRONOLOGY OF JANE ADDAMS' LIFE 1860 Born in Cedarville, Illinois 1877 Enters Rockford Female Seminary 1881 Graduates from Rockford 1888 Visits Toynbee Hall in London, England 1889 Founds Hull-House, a social settlement in Chicago, with Ellen Gates Starr 1894 Helps found Chicago Federation of Settlements 1895 Becomes garbage inspector for 19th Ward, Near West Side 1903 Becomes vice president of National Woman's Trade Union League 1905-08 Serves as member of Chicago Board of Education 1909 Helps to found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Elected 1st woman President of National Conference of Charities and Corrections (later National Conference of Social Work) 1910 Mediator in Chicago Garment Worker's Strike Publishes Twenty Years at Hull-House 1911-14 1st Vice President of National American Woman Suffrage Association 1st head of National Federation of Settlement and Neighborhood Centers 1912 Seconds Theodore Roosevelt's nomination at Progressive Party convention 1913 Attends Conference and Congress of International Woman's Suffrage Alliance, Budapest, Hungary 1915 Helps organize Woman's Peace Party, elected 1st Chairman Presides at International Congress of Women at the Hague, Netherlands 1919 Founds Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, serves as President 1919-29 1920 Helps found the American Civil Liberties Union 1928 Presides over conference of Pan-Pacific Women's Union in Hawaii 1931 1st American woman recipient of Nobel Peace Prize 1935 Dies in hospital in Chicago and is buried in Cedarville, Illinois -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TO LEARN MORE ABOUT JANE ADDAMS AND HULL-HOUSE: Biography of Jane Addams List of Hull-House Firsts -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUGGESTIONS FOR ADDITIONAL READING: Works By Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams Works about Jane Addams For Young Readers Works about Hull-House Works About the Women of Hull-House Click here to return to the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum HOME PAGE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- JANE ADDAMS' HULL-HOUSE MUSEUM The University of Illinois at Chicago 800 S. Halsted Street Chicago, IL 60607-7017 (312) 413-5353 Last Updated: 10/06/00 Questions and comments can be addressed to: SOME HULL-HOUSE FIRSTS First Social Settlement in Chicago First Social Settlement with men and women residents Established first public baths in Chicago Established first public playground in Chicago Established first gymnasium for the public in Chicago Established first little theater in the United States Established first citizenship preparation classes Established first public kitchen in Chicago Established first college extension courses in Chicago Established first group work school Established first painting loan program in Chicago Established first free art exhibits in Chicago Established first fresh air school in Chicago Established first public swimming pool in Chicago Established first boy scout troop in Chicago Investigations for the first time in Chicago of: truancy sanitation typhoid fever tuberculosis distribution of cocaine midwifery children's reading infant mortality newsboys social value of the saloon Investigations that led to creation and enactment of first factory laws in Illinois Investigations that led to creation of the first model tenement code First Illinois Factory Inspector, a Hull-House resident, Florence Kelley First probation officer in Chicago, a Hull-House resident, Alzina Stevens Labor unions organized at Hull-House: Women Shirt Makers Women Cloak Makers Dorcas Federal Labor Union Chicago Woman's Trade Union League -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TO LEARN MORE ABOUT JANE ADDAMS AND HULL-HOUSE: Biography of Jane Addams Chronology of Jane Addams -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUGGESTIONS FOR ADDITIONAL READING: Works By Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams For Young Readers Works about Hull-House Works About the Women of Hull-House Click here to return to the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum HOME PAGE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- JANE ADDAMS' HULL-HOUSE MUSEUM The University of Illinois at Chicago 800 S. Halsted Street Chicago, IL 60607-7017 (312) 413-5353 Last Updated: 2/27/97 Questions and comments can be addressed to: WORKS BY JANE ADDAMS BOOKS: Addams, Jane. Democracy and Social Ethics. 1902. Reprint. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1964. Addams, Jane. The Excellent Becomes the Permanent. New York: Macmillan Co., 1932. Addams, Jane. The Long Road of Woman's Memory. New York: Macmillan Co., 1916. Addams, Jane. My Friend, Julia Lathrop. 1935. Reprint. Children and Youth: Social Problems and Social Policy. New York: Arno Press, 1974. Addams, Jane. A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil. New York: Macmillan Co., 1912. Addams, Jane. Newer Ideals of Peace. 1907. Reprint. Peace Movement in America Series. New York: J.S. Ozer, 1972. Addams, Jane. Peace and Bread in Time of War. 1922. Reprint. NASW Classics Series. Silver Spring, Md.: National Association of Social Workers, 1983. Addams, Jane. The Second Twenty Years at Hull-House. New York: Macmillan Co., 1930. Addams, Jane. The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets. 1909. Reprint, with introduction by Allen F. Davis. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972. Addams, Jane. Twenty Years at Hull-House. 1910. Reprint, with introduction and notes by James Hurt. Prairie State Books. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990. Addams, Jane, Emily G. Balch, and Alice Hamilton. Women at the Hague. 1915. Reprint, with introduction by Mercedes M. Randall. The Garland Library of War and Peace. New York: Garland Publishing, 1972. ARTICLES: In addition, Jane Addams wrote hundreds of articles on a vast array of subjects, including aspects of settlement house life, industrial conditions, juvenile justice, suffrage, civil rights, municipal reform and planning, immigration and ethnicity, child welfare, international peace and many more. These articles were originally published in both scholarly journals and popular magazines which reached a wide audience. A good selection are reprinted in the following collections: Lasch, Christopher, ed. The Social Thought of Jane Adams. American Heritage Series. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1965. Johnson, Emily Cooper, ed. Jane Addams: A Centennial Reader. New York: Macmillan, 1960. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TO LEARN MORE ABOUT JANE ADDAMS AND HULL-HOUSE: Biography of Jane Addams Chronology of Jane Addams List of Hull-House Firsts -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUGGESTIONS FOR ADDITIONAL READING: Works About Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams For Young Readers Works About The Women of Hull-House Works About Hull-House Click here to return to the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum HOME PAGE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- JANE ADDAMS' HULL-HOUSE MUSEUM The University of Illinois at Chicago 800 S. Halsted Street Chicago, IL 60607-7017 (312) 413-5353 Last Updated: 2/27/97 Questions and comments can be addressed to: WORKS ABOUT JANE ADDAMS BOOKS ABOUT JANE ADDAMS: Davis, Allen F. American Heroine: The Life and Legend of Jane Addams. London: Oxford University Press, 1973. Deegan, Mary Jo. Jane Addams and the Men of the Chicago School, 1892-1918. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1988. Farrell, John C. Beloved Lady: A History of Jane Addams' Ideas on Reform and Peace. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967. Levine, Daniel. Jane Addams and the Liberal Tradition. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1971. Linn, James Weber. Jane Addams: A Biography. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1935. Polikoff, Barbara Garland. With One Bold Act: The Story of Jane Addams. Chicago: Boswell Books, 1999. ARTICLES ABOUT JANE ADDAMS: Conway, Jill. "Jane Addams: An American Heroine." Daedalus CXIII (Spring, 1964), 761-780. Cook, Blanche Wiesen. "Female Support Networks and Political Activism: Lillian Wald, Crystal Eastman, Emma Goldman." In A Heritage of Her Own: Toward A New Social History of American Women, edited by Nancy F. Cott and Elizabeth H. Pleck. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979. Elshtain, Jean Bethke. "A Return to Hull-House: Reflections on Jane Addams." In Power Trips and Other Journeys: Essays in Feminism as Civic Discourse, 3-12. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990. Lasch, Christopher. "Jane Addams: The College Woman and the Family Claim." In The New Radicalism in America (1889-1963): The Intellectual as a Social Type, 3-37. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966. Scott, Anne Firor. Introduction to Democracy and Social Ethics by Jane Addams. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1964. Scott, Anne Firor. "Jane Addams." In Notable American Women 1607-1950: A Biographical Dictionary, edited by Edward T. James, vol. 1. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1971. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TO LEARN MORE ABOUT JANE ADDAMS AND HULL-HOUSE: Biography of Jane Addams Chronology of Jane Addams' life List of Hull-House Firsts -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUGGESTIONS FOR ADDITIONAL READING: Works By Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams For Young Readers Works About Hull-House Works About The Women of Hull-House Click here to return to the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum HOME PAGE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- JANE ADDAMS' HULL-HOUSE MUSEUM The University of Illinois at Chicago 800 S. Halsted Street Chicago, IL 60607-7017 (312) 413-5353 Last Updated: 1/22/01 Questions and comments can be addressed to: BOOKS ABOUT JANE ADDAMS FOR YOUNG READERS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LEVEL: Arnold, Caroline. Children of the Settlement Houses. Minneapolis, Carolrhoda Books Inc., 1998. (Grades 3-6). Gilbert, Miriam. Jane Addams: World Neighbor. Makers of America. New York: Abingdon Press, 1960. (Favorable telling through dialogue that reads independently at 6th grade.) Gleiter, Jan and Kathleen Thompson. Jane Addams. Milwaukee: Raintree Childrens Books, 1988. (Flexible introductory reader that appeals to 3-5th grade. Reads independently at 5th grade. The realistic story and language along with the child's point of view and stimulating illustrations encourage and hold interest at three levels.) Grant, Matthew G. Jane Addams: Helper of the Poor. Gallery of Great Americans Series. Mankato, MN: Creative Education, 1974. (Simply written for 6-7th grade. Illustrations and simplicity suggest reading aloud with instruction at lower grades.) Johnson, Ann Donegan. The Value of Friendship: The Story of Jane Addams. Value Tales. La Jolla, CA: Value Communications, 1979. (4th grade. Highly fictionalized account.) Judson, Clara Ingram. City Neighbor: The Story of Jane Addams. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1951. (Simple telling through dialogue and narrative that is independent leisure reading at 7th grade.) Keller, Gail Faithfull. Jane Addams. A Crowell Biography. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1971. (6th grade reading level but highly simplified content.) Kent, Deborah. Jane Addams and Hull-House. Cornerstones of Freedom. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1992. (3rd through 6th grade reading level. Includes photographs.) McPherson, Stephanie Sammartino. Peace and Bread: The Story of Jane Addams. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books Inc., 1993. (For Ages 9-12) McPherson, Stephanie Sammartino. The Workers' Detective: A Story Abour Dr. Alice Hamilton. Minneapolis, Carolrhoda Books Inc., 1992. (For ages 4-8) Mooney, Elizabeth Comstock. Jane Addams. Library of American Heroes. Chicago: Follett Publishing Co., 1968. (Leisure story that reads independently at 8th grade. Syntax and language raise readability higher than concepts suggest.) Piotrowski, Bonnie, ed. Jane Addams, 1860-1935. Cobblestone (Cobblestone Publishing Company, Petersborough, NH); Vol.20:3, March 1999/ (Fro Grades 4-9 and Ages 9-14) Wagoner, Jean Brown. Jane Addams: Little Lame Girl. 1944. Reprint. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1962. (3rd grade. Widely read but dated interpretation.) SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL: Addams, Jane. Twenty Years at Hull House. (Abridged). The Bedford Series in History and Culture, edited by Victoria Bissell Brown. Boston/New York: Bedford St. Martins Press, 1999. Kittredge, Mary. Jane Addams. American Women of Achievement Series. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. (Supplemental, special interest reader at the high school level. Historic photos and illustrations complement a straightforward and energetic writing style that instructs and encourages the reader.) Meigs, Cornelia. Jane Addams: Pioneer for Social Justice. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1970. (Historical high school level reader. Well organized and detailed. Direct instruction tool, aid in student research projects, and good biography for interested reader.) Parks, Deborah A .Jane Addams: Freedom's Innovator. Time-Life History Makers Series. Alexandria, Virginia: 2000. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TO LEARN MORE ABOUT JANE ADDAMS AND HULL-HOUSE: Biography of Jane Addams Chronology of Jane Addams List of Hull-House Firsts -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUGGESTIONS FOR ADDITIONAL READING: Works By Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams Works About Hull-House Works About The Women of Hull-House Click here to return to the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum HOME PAGE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- JANE ADDAMS' HULL-HOUSE MUSEUM The University of Illinois at Chicago 800 S. Halsted Street Chicago, IL 60607-7017 (312) 413-5353 Last Updated: 1/22/01 Questions and comments can be addressed to: WORKS ABOUT HULL-HOUSE BOOKS ABOUT HULL-HOUSE: Bryan, Mary Lynn McCree and Allen F. Davis, eds. One Hundred Years at Hull-House. Rev., expanded ed. of: Eighty Years at Hull-House, 1969. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990. Clapp, Elizabeth 3.Mothers of All Children: Women Reformers and the Rise of Juvenile courts in Progressive Era America. University Park, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998. Davis, Allen. Spearheads for Reform: The Social Settlements and the Progressive Movement, 1890-1914. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967. Hull-House, Residents of. Hull-House Maps and Papers: A Presentation of Nationalities and Wages in a Congested District of Chicago, Together with Comments and Essays on Problems Growing Out of the Social Conditions. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1895. Jane Addams' Hull-House: Humanities Programs for the Centennial. Opening New Worlds: Jane Addams' Hull-House. UIC Institute for the Humanities, 1989. Lissak, Rivka Shpak. Pluralism and Progressives: Hull House and the New Immigrants, 1890-1919. Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1989. McNamee, Gwen Hoerr, ed. A Noble Social Experiment: The First 100 Years of the Cook County Juvenile Court 1899-1999. Published by the Chicago Bar Association with the Children's Court Centennial Committee, 1999. Polacheck, Hilda Satt. I Came a Stranger: The Story of a Hull House Girl. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989. Stebner, Eleanor J. The Women of Hull House: A Study in Spirituality, Vocation and Friendship. State University of New York Press, 1997. Trolander, Judith Ann. Settlement Houses and the Great Depression. Detroit: Wayne State University, 1975. ity, 1975. ARTICLES ABOUT HULL-HOUSE: Addams, Jane. "Hull-House." In The New Encyclopedia of Social Reform, eds. William Bliss and Rudolph Binder. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1908. Abbott, Edith. "The Hull-House of Jane Addams." Social Service Review XXVI (September, 1952), 334-338. Hamilton, Alice. "Hull-House Within." Chap IV in Exploring the Dangerous Trades: The Autobiography of Alice Hamilton. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1943. Horowitz, Helen. "Hull-House as Women's Space." Chicago History 12 (Winter, 1983-84), 40-55. Kelley, Nicholas. "Early Days at Hull-House." Social Service Review XXVIII (December, 1954), 424-429. Sklar, Kathryn Kish. "Hull House in the 1890s: A Community of Women Reformers." Signs 10 (1985), 658-677. Sklar, Kathryn Kish. "Who Funded Hull House?." In Lady Bountiful Revisited: Women Philanthropy and Power,ed. Kathleen D. McCarthy. (New Brunswick and London: Rutgers University Press, 1990), 94-115. Trolander, Judith. "Hull-House and the Settlement House Movement: A Centennial Reassessment". Journal of Urban History v17 (August 1991): 410-20. PHOTOGRAPHS: Johnson, Mary Ann, ed. The Many Faces of Hull-House: The Photographs of Wallace Kirkland. Visions of Illinois. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TO LEARN MORE ABOUT JANE ADDAMS AND HULL-HOUSE: Biography of Jane Addams Chronology of Jane Addams List of Hull-House Firsts -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SUGGESTIONS FOR ADDITIONAL READING: Works By Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams For Young Readers Works About The Women of Hull-House Click here to return to the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum HOME PAGE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- JANE ADDAMS' HULL-HOUSE MUSEUM The University of Illinois at Chicago 800 S. Halsted Street Chicago, IL 60607-7017 (312) 413-5353 Last Updated: 1/22/01 Questions and comments can be addressed to: WORKS ABOUT THE WOMEN OF HULL-HOUSE GENERAL Deegan, Mary Jo. "W.E.B. Du Bois and the Women of Hull-House, 1895-1899." American Sociologist v19, no. 4 (Winter 1988):301-10. James, Edward T. et al., eds. Notable American Women 1607-1950: A Biographical Dictionary. 3 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1974. Contains biographical entries on: Jane Addams, Grace Abbott, Sophonisba Breckinridge, Florence Kelley, Julia Lathrop, Mary McDowell, and Ellen Gates Starr. Muncy, Robyn. Creating A Female Dominion in American Reform 1890-1935. New York. Oxford University Press, 1991. Sicherman, Barbara et al., eds. Notable American Women: The Modern Period. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, 1980. Contains biographical entry on: Alice Hamilton. Sklar, Kathryn Kish. "Hull House in the 1890s: A Community of Women Reformers." Signs 10 (Summer 1985): 658-77. Stehno, Sandra M. "Public Responsibility for Dependant Black Children: The Advocacy of Edith Abbott and Sophonisba Breckinridge." Social Service Review v62 (September 1988): 485-503. Wright, Helen R. "Three Against Time: Edith and Grace Abbott and Sophonisba P. Breckinridge." Social Service Review 28 (March 1954): 41-53. GRACE AND EDITH ABBOTT: Abbott, Edith. "Grace Abbott and Hull House, 1908-21." Social Service Review 24 (September 1950): 374-94. Costin, Lela B. "Edith Abbott and the Chicago Influence on Social Work Education." Social Service Review v57 (March 1983): 94-111. Costin, Lela B. Two Sisters for Social Justice: A Biography of Grace and Edith Abbott. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983. Costin, Lela B. "Women and Physicians: The 1930 White House Conference on Children." Social Work v28 (March/April 1983): 108-14. LOUISE DE KOVEN BOWEN: Bowen, Louise de Koven. Growing Up With a City. New York: Macmillan Co., 1926. Bowen, Louise de Koven. Open Windows: Stories of People and Places. Chicago: Ralph Fletcher Seymour, 1946. SOPHONISBA BRECKINRIDGE: Abbott, Edith. "Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge Over the Years." Social Service Review 22 (December 1948): 417-23. Klotter, James. The Breckinridges of Kentucky, 1760-1981. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1986. ALICE HAMILTON: Hamilton, Alice. Exploring the Dangerous Trades: The Autobiography of Alice Hamilton. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., Atlantic Monthly Press, 1943. Sicherman, Barbara, ed. Alice Hamilton: A Life in Letters. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984. Sicherman, Barbara. "Gender, Professionalism and Reform in the Career of Alice Hamilton." In Women in the Progressive Era, eds. Noralee Frankel and Nancy Schrom Dye. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1990. FLORENCE KELLEY: Blumberg, Dorothy Rose. Florence Kelley: The Making of a Social Pioneer. New York: Augustus Kelley, 1966. Goldmark, Josephine. Impatient Crusader: Florence Kelley's Life Story. 1953. Reprint. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1976. Perkins, Frances. "My Recollections of Florence Kelley." Social Service Review v28 (March 1954): 12-19. Sklar, Kathryn Kish. Florence Kelly and the Nations Work: The Rise of Women's Political Culture, 1830-1900. New Haven and London. Yale University Press, 1995. Sklar, Kathryn Kish, ed. The Autobiography of Florence Kelley: Notes of Sixty Years. First Person Series, no. 1. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr Publishing Co., 1986. JULIA LATHROP: Abbott, Edith. "Julia Lathrop." Social Service Review 6 (September 1932): 336. Addams, Jane. My Friend, Julia Lathrop. New York: Macmillan Co., 1935. Addams, Jane. "A Great Public Servant, Julia C. Lathrop." Social Service Review v6 (June 1932): 280-85. "Julia Lathrop and the Public Social Services." Social Service Review 6 (June 1932): 301-6. Parker, Jacqueline K. and Edward M. Carpenter. "Julia Lathrop and the Children's Bureau: The Emergence of an Institution." Social Service Review 55 (May 1981): 60-77. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TO LEARN MORE ABOUT JANE ADDAMS AND HULL-HOUSE: Biography of Jane Addams Chronology of Jane Addams List of Hull-House Firsts SUGGESTIONS FOR ADDITIONAL READING: Works By Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams Works About Jane Addams For Young Readers Works About Hull-House Click here to return to the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum HOME PAGE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- JANE ADDAMS' HULL-HOUSE MUSEUM The University of Illinois at Chicago 800 S. Halsted Street Chicago, IL 60607-7017 (312) 413-5353 Last Updated: 1/22/01 Questions and comments can be addressed to:
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