panlog πάντα διὰ πάντων
तत् त्वम् असि
جهان است ل
СакралSakral ФинансыFinances ЛитератураLiterature ИскусстваArt НовостиNews Eng / RusEng / Rus
СправкиInfo РасписанияShedules СоциомирыSocial world НаукиScience ДобавитьAdd МыWe

КУРБЕ Гюстав ♂ 1819-1877 Франция, живописец COURBET Gustave ♂ 1819-1877 France painter

РодилсяBornРодителиParentsРодичиRelativesСупругиSpousesПотомкиDescendants
Пол, ориентация, секс-связиGender, orientation, sexual liaisonsРейтинги, титулы, званияRatings, titles, gradesДоходы, имущество, капитализацияIncomes, property, capitalizationНаграды, премии, должностиAwards, prizes, positionsНаследство, споры о нёмBequest, disputes about it
Гражданство, подданствоNationality, allegiance
Жан Дезире́ Гюста́в Курбе́ (фр. Gustave Courbet; 10 июня1819, Орнан — 31 декабря1877, Ла Тур-де-Пей, Во, Швейцария) — французский живописец, пейзажист, жанрист и портретист. Считается одним из завершителей романтизма и основателей реализма в живописи. Один из крупнейших художников Франции на протяжении XIX века, ключевая фигура французского реализма. 

Гюстав Курбе: Автопортрет Курбе
Гюстав Курбе: Автопортрет Курбе

Творчество Курбе вместе с творчеством Ж. Ф. Милле, О. Домье, художников барбизонской школы (см. Западноевропейская живопись XVII— XX вв.) составило мощное движение в искусстве Франции середины прошлого века. Идеи Курбе были восприняты многими художниками других стран. На наследие мастера из Орнана опирались и многие французские мастера последующего поколения, например Э. Мане и импрессионисты.

Гюстав Курбе: Портрет художника или Мужчина с трубкой
Гюстав Курбе: Портрет художника или Мужчина с трубкой"

Гюстав Курбе: Натюрморт с фруктами
Гюстав Курбе: Натюрморт с фруктами

Свернуть )


Гюстав Курбе: Букет цветов в вазе
Гюстав Курбе: Букет цветов в вазе

Гюстав Курбе: Источник, фрагмент
Гюстав Курбе: Источник, фрагмент

Гюстав Курбе: Студия художников - Реальная аллегория, 1855
Гюстав Курбе: Студия художников - Реальная аллегория, 1855

Гюстав Курбе: Пейзаж: источник среди скал департамента Ду
Гюстав Курбе: Пейзаж: источник среди скал департамента Ду

Гюстав Курбе: Скалы в Этрета
Гюстав Курбе: Скалы в Этрета

Гюстав Курбе: Рыбацкие лодки на берегу в Довиле
Гюстав Курбе: Рыбацкие лодки на берегу в Довиле

Гюстав Курбе: Пейзаж в местечке Гюйе
Гюстав Курбе: Пейзаж в местечке Гюйе

Гюстав Курбе: Портрет прекрасной ирландской девушки
Гюстав Курбе: Портрет прекрасной ирландской девушки


Гюстав Курбе: Исток реки Лизон
Гюстав Курбе: Исток реки Лизон

Гюстав Курбе: Скалистый берег моря
Гюстав Курбе: Скалистый берег моря

Гюстав Курбе: Опушка леса
Гюстав Курбе: Опушка леса

Гюстав Курбе: Закат на озере Леман
Гюстав Курбе: Закат на озере Леман

Гюстав Курбе: Марина
Гюстав Курбе: Марина

Гюстав Курбе: Залив и отвесные скалы берега
Гюстав Курбе: Залив и отвесные скалы берега

Гюстав Курбе: Штормовая волна, 1869
Гюстав Курбе: Штормовая волна, 1869


http://gallerix.ru/storeroom/1138816459/
</center></blockquote>
Оригинал записи и комментарии на LiveInternet.ru
Жан Дезире́ Гюста́в Курбе́ (фр. Gustave Courbet; 10 июня1819, Орнан — 31 декабря1877, Ла Тур-де-Пей, Во, Швейцария) — французский живописец, пейзажист, жанрист и портретист. Считается одним из завершителей романтизма и основателей реализма в живописи. Один из крупнейших художников Франции на протяжении XIX века, ключевая фигура французского реализма. 

Гюстав Курбе: Автопортрет Курбе
Гюстав Курбе: Автопортрет Курбе

Творчество Курбе вместе с творчеством Ж. Ф. Милле, О. Домье, художников барбизонской школы (см. Западноевропейская живопись XVII— XX вв.) составило мощное движение в искусстве Франции середины прошлого века. Идеи Курбе были восприняты многими художниками других стран. На наследие мастера из Орнана опирались и многие французские мастера последующего поколения, например Э. Мане и импрессионисты.

Гюстав Курбе: Портрет художника или Мужчина с трубкой
Гюстав Курбе: Портрет художника или Мужчина с трубкой"

Гюстав Курбе: Натюрморт с фруктами
Гюстав Курбе: Натюрморт с фруктами

Свернуть )


Гюстав Курбе: Букет цветов в вазе
Гюстав Курбе: Букет цветов в вазе

Гюстав Курбе: Источник, фрагмент
Гюстав Курбе: Источник, фрагмент

Гюстав Курбе: Студия художников - Реальная аллегория, 1855
Гюстав Курбе: Студия художников - Реальная аллегория, 1855

Гюстав Курбе: Пейзаж: источник среди скал департамента Ду
Гюстав Курбе: Пейзаж: источник среди скал департамента Ду

Гюстав Курбе: Скалы в Этрета
Гюстав Курбе: Скалы в Этрета

Гюстав Курбе: Рыбацкие лодки на берегу в Довиле
Гюстав Курбе: Рыбацкие лодки на берегу в Довиле

Гюстав Курбе: Пейзаж в местечке Гюйе
Гюстав Курбе: Пейзаж в местечке Гюйе

Гюстав Курбе: Портрет прекрасной ирландской девушки
Гюстав Курбе: Портрет прекрасной ирландской девушки


Гюстав Курбе: Исток реки Лизон
Гюстав Курбе: Исток реки Лизон

Гюстав Курбе: Скалистый берег моря
Гюстав Курбе: Скалистый берег моря

Гюстав Курбе: Опушка леса
Гюстав Курбе: Опушка леса

Гюстав Курбе: Закат на озере Леман
Гюстав Курбе: Закат на озере Леман

Гюстав Курбе: Марина
Гюстав Курбе: Марина

Гюстав Курбе: Залив и отвесные скалы берега
Гюстав Курбе: Залив и отвесные скалы берега

Гюстав Курбе: Штормовая волна, 1869
Гюстав Курбе: Штормовая волна, 1869


http://gallerix.ru/storeroom/1138816459/
</center></blockquote>
Оригинал записи и комментарии на LiveInternet.ru
Архивы: фото, видео, аудиоArchives: photo,video, audio
Профессия, специализацияProfession, specialization
ПартнерыParty membershipБиографияBiography
Этнос, язык, конфессияEthnos, language, confessionСоматикаSomatic
Партийность, электоральные предпочтенияParty membership, electoral preferencesПсихика, соционикаPsyche, socionics
УчебаBuildingПретензии, иски его и к немуClaims his, suits against him
Карьера, новостиCareer, news
 Courbet, Gustave (b. June 10, 1819, Ornans, Fr.--d. Dec. 31, 1877, La Tour-de-Peilz, Switz.), French painter and leader of the realist movement. Courbet rebelled against the Romantic painting of his day, turning to everyday events for his subject matter. His huge shadowed canvases with their solid groups of figures ("The Artist's Studio," 1855) drew sharp criticism from the establishment. From the 1860s a more sensuous and colourful manner prevailed in his work. (see also Index: realism) Early Life and Work Courbet was born in eastern France, the son of Eleonor-Regis, a prosperous farmer, and Sylvie Courbet. After attending both the College Royal and the college of fine arts at Besancon, he went to Paris in 1841, ostensibly to study law. He devoted himself more seriously, however, to studying the paintings of the masters in the Louvre. Father and son had great mutual respect, and, when Courbet told his father he intended to become a painter rather than a provincial lawyer, his father consented, saying, "If anyone gives up, it will be you, not me," and adding that, if necessary, he would sell his land and vineyards and even his houses. Freed from all financial worry, young Courbet was able to devote himself entirely to his art. He gained technical proficiency by copying the pictures of Diego Velazquez, Ribera, and other 17th-century Spanish painters. In 1844, when he was 25, after several unsuccessful attempts, his self-portrait "Courbet with a Black Dog," painted in 1842, was accepted by the Salon--the only annual public exhibition of art in France, sponsored by the Royal Academy. When in the following years the jury for the Salon thrice rejected his work because of its unconventional style and bold subject matter, he remained undaunted and continued to submit it. The development of Realism The Revolution of 1848 ushered in the Second Republic and a new liberal spirit that greatly affected the arts. The Salon held its exhibition not in the Louvre itself but in the adjoining galleries of the Tuileries. Courbet exhibited there in 1849, and his early work was greeted with considerable critical and public acclaim. In 1849 he visited his family at Ornans to recover from the hectic life in Paris and, inspired again by his native countryside, produced two of his greatest paintings: "The Stone-Breakers" and "Burial at Ornans." Painted in 1849, "The Stone-Breakers" is a realistic rendering of two figures doing menial labour in a barren, rural setting. The "Burial at Ornans," from the following year, is a huge representation of a peasant funeral, containing more than 40 life-size figures. Both works depart radically from the more controlled, idealized pictures of either the Neoclassic or Romantic schools; they portray the life and emotions not of aristocratic personages but of humble peasants, and they do so with a realistic urgency. The fact that Courbet did not glorify his peasants but presented them boldly and starkly created a violent reaction in the art world. Leader of the new school of Realism. Courbet, an intimate of many writers and philosophers of his day, including the poet Charles Baudelaire and the social philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, became the leader of the new school of Realism, which in time prevailed over other contemporary movements. One of the decisive elements in his development of Realism was his lifelong attachment to the traditions and customs of his native province, the French-Comte, and of his birthplace, Ornans, one of the most beautiful towns in the province. After a brief visit to Switzerland, he returned to Ornans and in late 1854 began an immense canvas, which he completed in six weeks: "The Artist's Studio," an allegory of all the influences on Courbet's artistic life, portrayed as human figures from all levels of society. Courbet himself presides over all the figures with ingenuous conceit, working on a landscape and turning his back to a nude model. When the painting was refused by the jury for the 1855 Exposition Universelle, Courbet, with the financial support of a friend, opened his own pavilion of Realism to exhibit his works close to the exposition. His show provided the first group exhibition of Realistic paintings. The enterprise failed; the painter Eugene Delacroix alone, in his journal, praised the audacity and talent of Courbet, who made another attempt in 1867 but was again unsuccessful. In 1856 Courbet visited Germany, where he was warmly welcomed by his fellow artists. Three years later, at the age of 40 and still working in defiance of severe criticism in his own country, he was the undisputed master and leader of a new generation of painters that had turned away from the traditional schools of painting, which they considered only barriers to artistic inspiration. Courbet worked in all genres. A lover of women, he glorified the female nude in paintings of stunning warmth and sensuality. He executed admirable portraits, but above all he celebrated the Franche-Comte, the forests, springs, rocks, and cliffs of which were immortalized by his vision. In 1865 he set up his easel before the cliffs of Etretat, Deauville, Trouville, and other resorts fashionable during the Second Empire. Carefully observing air currents and storm skies, he successfully depicted the architecture of a tempest in a series of seascapes. These pictures were an extraordinary achievement that amazed the world of art and opened the way for Impressionism, which was to achieve an even greater sensuousness by reproducing the colour and light reflected by an object rather than its strict linear shape. Political activities. The Franco-German War broke out in 1870, the Second Empire collapsed, and the Third Republic was proclaimed. On March 18, 1871, the republican Paris Commune was established to fight the Germans in France as well as to fight the Army of Versailles, which had remained loyal to Napoleon III and had concluded an armistice with the Germans that was judged to be dishonourable by the members of the Commune. Courbet, who had been recently elected president of the artists' federation and was charged with reopening the museums and organizing the annual Salon, took part in the revolutionary activities of the Commune. Instead of opening the museums, he decided to protect the major public monuments, especially the Sevres china factory and the palace at Fontainebleau, for Paris had been under constant bombardment by the Germans. Alarmed by the excesses of the Commune, he resigned May 2. The Commune had voted to destroy the column in the Place Vendome commemorating the Grand Army of Napoleon Bonaparte, and it carried out the decision on May 16. But on May 28 the Commune was crushed by the Army of Versailles, and on June 7 Courbet was arrested at the home of a friend. Because he was thought to be responsible for the demolition of the column, he was brought before a military court. As he had often made known his disgust of the militarism represented by the monument, he was charged with having been the instigator, although he had in no way participated in its destruction. A scapegoat was needed, and Courbet was arbitrarily chosen, despite his protests and those of the persons actually responsible for the demolition, who had fled to England. He was sentenced to six months in prison, and, thanks to the intervention of Adolphe Thiers, head of the provisional government of the French Republic, he was given a minimum fine of 500 francs. He served his sentence first at the Sainte-Pelagie prison, and, when he became seriously ill, he was moved to a clinic near Paris. Once freed, he hastened to Ornans in the hope of regaining his strength. When Thiers resigned in 1872, the Bonapartist deputies reopened Courbet's case and sued him for the cost of rebuilding the column. His entire personal property and all his paintings were seized, and he was fined 500,000 gold francs. Having no alternative but to leave France because he could not pay the fine, he crossed the border into Switzerland on July 23, 1873, and settled in the small town of Fleurier. He set to work again, but, feeling unsafe so close to France, he first went to Vevey and then to La Tour-de-Peilz, where he bought an old inn, appropriately named the Bon-Port (Safe Arrival). There he died at the age of 58, physically and morally exhausted. Courbet's reputation has continued to grow since his death. His detractors often judge his art only on the basis of his Socialism, ignoring the fact that his political beliefs grew out of his generosity and compassion. His work, however, exerted much influence on the modern movements that followed him. He offered succeeding generations of painters not so much a new technique as a whole new philosophy. The aim of painting was not, as previous schools had maintained, to embellish or idealize reality but to reproduce it accurately. Courbet succeeded in ridding painting of its artistic cliches, contrived idealism, and timeworn models. (R.J.F.) Major Works MAJOR WORKS. "Courbet au chien noir" ("Courbet with a Black Dog," 1842; Musee du Petit Palais, Paris); "Juliette Courbet" (1844; Musee du Petit Palais); "L'Homme a la pipe" ("Man with a Pipe," c. 1846; Musee Fabre, Montpellier, Fr.); "St. Nicolas ressuscitant les petits enfants" (1847; Eglise de Saules, near Ornans, Fr.); "L'Apres-dinee a Ornans" ("After Dinner at Ornans," 1849; Musee des Beaux-Arts, Lille, Fr.); "Un Enterrement a Ornans" ("Burial at Ornans," 1849; Louvre, Paris); "Les Paysans de Flagey revenant de la foire" ("The Peasants of Flagey Returning from the Fair," 1850; Musee des Beaux-Arts et d'Archeologie, Besancon, Fr.); "Young Ladies from the Village" ("Les Demoiselles de village," 1851-52; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City); "Les Baigneuses" (1853; Musee Fabre); "Portrait de Bruyas" (1854; Musee Fabre); "La Rencontre ou bonjour, Monsieur Courbet" (1854; Musee Fabre;) "La Roche de dix-heures" (c. 1854; Louvre); "Les Cribleuses de ble" ("The Winnowers," 1854; Musee des Beaux-Arts, Nantes, Fr.); "L'Atelier du peintre, Allegorie reelle" ("The Artist's Studio, a Real Allegory of a Seven-Year Long Phase of My Artistic Life," 1855; Louvre); "Mere Gregoire" (1855; Art Institute of Chicago); "Les Demoiselles desbords de la Seine" ("Young Women on the Banks of the Seine," 1856; Musee du Petit Palais); "La Toilette de la mariee" ("The Bride at Her Toilet," 1859; Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, Mass.); "La Diligence dans la neige" (1860; National Gallery, London); "Combat de cerfs. Le Rut du printemps" ("Battle Between Two Stags," 1861; Louvre); "The Trellis" (c. 1863; Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio); "Proudhon et ses enfants" ("Proudhon and His Family," 1865; Musee du Petit Palais); "La Remise de chevreuils" ("Roe-Deer in Cover by the Plaisir-Fontaine Stream," 1866; Louvre); "The Woman with a Parrot" ("La Femme au Perroquet," 1866; Metropolitan Museum of Art); "Les Dormeuses" ("Sleeping Women," 1866; Musee du Petit Palais); "La Source ou baigneuse a la source" (1868; Louvre); "Falaise d'Etretat apres l'orage" ("The Cliffs at Etretat," 1870; Louvre); "Mer orageuse" ("La Vague," 1870; Louvre); "Portrait de Regis Courbet" (1874; Musee du Petit Palais). BIBLIOGRAPHY. Georges Riat, Gustave Courbet, peintre (1906), written in collaboration with Juliette Courbet, who made important documents available to the author, is the definitive work upon which most later studies were based. Bela Lazare, Courbet et son influence a l'etranger (1911), is a detailed analysis of Courbet's influence on the painters of central Europe. Charles Leger, Courbet (1929), is abundantly illustrated and often sheds new light on the art of the painter. Marcel Zahar, Gustave Courbet (1950), analyzes the character of the man and the genius of the painter (in French). Gerstle Mack, Gustave Courbet (1951), is a meticulously and heavily documented study of the artist (in English). Robert Ferner, Gustave Courbet (Eng. trans. 1969), analyzes Courbet the craftsman; Benedict Nicolson, Courbet: The Studio of the Painter (1973). The Societe des "Amis de Gustave Courbet" Bulletin (issued twice a year since 1947) records all new information on Courbet's life and work. Related Internet Links: Courbet, Gustave The Wave The Trout The Quarry Low Tide Known as Immensity Portrait of Juliette Courbet as a Sleeping Child The Wounded Man La Mere Gregoire Portrait of Gabrielle Borreau The Young Ladies of the Banks of the Seine The Ladies of the Village Giving Alms to a Cowherd in a Valley of Ornans The Painter's Studio Bonjour Monsieur Courbet Still Life with Apples and Pomegranates Courbet, Gustave The Painter's Studio, A Real Allegory Portrait of Gabrielle Borreau A Thicket of Deer at the Stream of Plaisir-Fontaine La Mere Gregoire Portrait of Juliette Courbet as a Sleeping Child A Burial at Ornans The Source The Stormy Sea The Wounded Man
Поездки, связи вовнеTravels, contacts outside
Лица причастныеPersons participialПоездки, связи внутриTTravels, contacts inside
Общественные делаSocial activityОтзывы о нёмOpinions
Экзы - война, суд, катастрофы...)Exs - wars, trials, accidents...)Труды егоWorks own
Неволя - тюрьма, плен...)Captivity - prison, bondage...)БиблиографияBibliography
Умер, неизлечимость, недееспособнсотьDie, incurable, invalidityСетьWeb