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Австралия (Австралийский Союз) 1901- конституционная монархия, геозона Австралия и Новая Зеландия, площадь 7.692.024 кв км, население 25.054.406 (2018-10-09), столица Канберра UTC +10 (летом +11), премьер-министр МОРРИСОН Скотт (2018-) родился 1968-05-13, ISO-код AU, телефонный код +61, Интернет-домен .au Australia ( Australian Union ) 1901- constitutional monarchy, geo-zone Australia and New Zealand, area 7,692,024 sq km, population 25,054,406 (2018-10-09), capital Canberra UTC +10 (in summer +11), Prime Minister MORRISON Scott (2018-) was born 1968-05-13, ISO-code AU, phone code +61, Internet domain .au

СозданиеCreationУчредители, первое лицоFounders, supreme authorityПравительствоGovernmentПарламентParliamentОппозиция, обществнностьOpposition, public
Конституция, законы, инсигнииConstitution, laws, insigniaРейтингиRatingsЭкономика, ресурсыEconomics, resourcesСоциалкаSocialФинансы, бюджетFinances, budget
Место в мировой системеPlace in world system
Архивы: Фото, Видео, АудиоArchives: Photo, Video, Audio
Культура, специфика, переменыCulture, specific, conversions
Демография, этносы, языки, конфессииDemography, ethnoses, languages, confessionsГеография, природа, экологияGeography, nature, ecology
Конфликты, выборы, реформыConflicts, elections, reformsТуризм, отдыхTourism, relaxation
Медиа, общественное мнениеMedia, social opinionСпорт, хобби, обычаиSport, hobby, customs
 Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire in 1901. It was able to take advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef. A referendum to change Australia's status, from a commonwealth headed by the British monarch to a republic, was defeated in 1999. Geography Australia Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E Map references: Oceania Area: total: 7,686,850 sq km water: 68,920 sq km note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island land: 7,617,930 sq km Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 25,760 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum Land use: arable land: 6.88% permanent crops: 0.03% other: 93.09% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 24,000 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Geography - note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer People Australia Population: 19,546,792 (July 2002 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 20.4% (male 2,046,052; female 1,949,725) 15-64 years: 67% (male 6,610,840; female 6,480,354) 65 years and over: 12.6% (male 1,078,506; female 1,381,315) (2002 est.) Population growth rate: 0.96% (2002 est.) Birth rate: 12.71 births/1,000 population (2002 est.) Death rate: 7.25 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.) Net migration rate: 4.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.) Infant mortality rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80 years female: 83 years (2002 est.) male: 77.15 years Total fertility rate: 1.77 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.15% (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 14,000 (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - deaths: 100 (1999 est.) Nationality: noun: Australian(s) adjective: Australian Ethnic groups: Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1% Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%, non-Christian 11%, other 12.6% Languages: English, native languages Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100% (1980 est.) Government Australia Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia conventional short form: Australia Government type: democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign Capital: Canberra Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies) National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788) Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901 Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Rt. Rev. Dr. Peter HOLLINGWORTH (since 29 June 2001) head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11 March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON (since 20 July 1999) cabinet: Cabinet Parliament nominates, from among its members, a list of candidates to serve as government ministers; from this list, the governor general makes the final selections for the Cabinet elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats - 12 from each of the six states and two from each of the two mainland territories; one-half of the members elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives (150 seats - this is up from 148 seats in 2001 election; members elected by popular vote on the basis of preferential representation to serve three-year terms; no state can have fewer than five representatives) elections: Senate - last held 10 November 2001 (next to be held by November 2004); House of Representatives - last held 10 November 2001 (next to be held by November 2004) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 35, Australian Labor Party 28, Australian Democrats 8, Green Party 2, One Nation Party 1, Country Labor Party 1, independent 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 82, Australian Labor Party 65, independent and other 3 Judicial branch: High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general) Political parties and leaders: Australian Democrats [Andrew BARTLETT]; Australian Labor Party [Simon CREAN]; Country Labor Party [leader NA]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Liberal Party [John Winston HOWARD]; National Party [John ANDERSON]; One Nation Party [Pauline HANSON] Political pressure groups and leaders: Australian Monarchist League [leader NA]; Australian Republican Movement [leader NA] International organization participation: ANZUS, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMEE, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. THAWLEY consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168 telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000 chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador J. Thomas SCHIEFFER embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 mailing address: APO AP 96549 telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600 FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970 consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars Economy Australia Economy - overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies. Rising output in the domestic economy has been offsetting the global slump, and business and consumer confidence remains robust. Canberra's emphasis on reforms is another key factor behind the economy's strength. The stagnant economic conditions in major export partners and the impact of the worst drought in 100 years cast a shadow over prospects for 2003. GDP: purchasing power parity - $528 billion (2002 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (2002 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $27,000 (2002 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3% industry: 26% services: 71% (2001 est.) Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2% highest 10%: 25% (1994) Distribution of family income - Gini index: 35 (1994) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2002 est.) Labor force: 9.2 million (December 2001 ) Labor force - by occupation: services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5% (1997 est.) Unemployment rate: 6.3% (2002) Budget: revenues: $86.8 billion expenditures: $84.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est. ) Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (2002 est.) Electricity - production: 202.68 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 90% hydro: 8% other: 2% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 188.49 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000) Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000) Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry Exports: $66.3 billion (2002 est.) Exports - commodities: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and transport equipment Exports - partners: Developing countries 45.6%, Japan 19.7%, ASEAN 13.3%, EU 11.7%, US 9.7% (2001) Imports: $68 billion (2002 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products Imports - partners: Developing countries 31.7%, EU 21.6%, US 18.9%, ASEAN 14.8%, Japan 13.0% (2001) Debt - external: $176.8 billion (2001 est.) Economic aid - donor: ODA, $894 million (FY99/00 ) Currency: Australian dollar (AUD) Currency code: AUD Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.9354 (January 2002), 1.9320 (2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997) Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June Communications Australia Telephones - main lines in use: 10.05 million (2000) Telephones - mobile cellular: 8.6 million (2000) Telephone system: general assessment: excellent domestic and international service domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular telephones international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean regions) (1998) Radio broadcast stations: AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998) Radios: 25.5 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 104 (1997) Televisions: 10.15 million (1997) Internet country code: .au Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 571 (2002) Internet users: 10.63 million (2002) Transportation Australia Railways: total: 33,819 km (2,540 km electrified) broad gauge: 3,719 km 1.600-m gauge narrow gauge: 14,506 km 1.067-m gauge standard gauge: 15,422 km 1.435-m gauge dual gauge: 172 km NA gauges (1999 est.) Highways: total: 913,000 km paved: 353,331 km (including 1,363 km of expressways) unpaved: 559,669 km (1996) Waterways: 8,368 km (mainly used by small, shallow-draft craft) Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km Ports and harbors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport (Tasmania), Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston (Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville Merchant marine: total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,469,362 GRT/1,869,262 DWT ships by type: bulk 26, cargo 5, chemical tanker 4, container 1, liquefied gas 4, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 6, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: France 2, United Kingdom 2, United States 14 (2002 est.) Airports: 421 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 294 over 3,047 m: 10 2,438 to 3,047 m: 11 1,524 to 2,437 m: 126 914 to 1,523 m: 134 under 914 m: 13 (2002) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 150 1,524 to 2,437 m: 20 914 to 1,523 m: 116 under 914 m: 14 (2002) Military Australia Military branches: Royal Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age (2002 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 5,013,406 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 4,321,387 (2002 est.) Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 142,686 (2002 est.) Military expenditures - dollar figure: $9.3 billion (FY01/02 est.) Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY01/02) Transnational Issues Australia Disputes - international: Australia-East Timor-Indonesia are working to resolve maritime boundary and sharing of seabed resources in "Timor Gap"; Australia asserts a territorial claim to Antarctica and to its continental shelf Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate This page was last updated on 19 March 2003 Smallest continent and sixth-largest country (in area) on earth, lying between the Pacific and Indian oceans. Area: 2,967,909 sq mi (7,686,884 sq km). Population (1997 est.): 18,508,000. Capital: Canberra. Most Australians are descendants of Europeans; the largest nonwhite minority is the Australian Aborigines. The Asian part of the population has grown as a result of relaxed immigration policy. Language: English (official). Religions: Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism. Currency: Australian dollar. Australia has four major physiographic regions. More than half its land area is the Western Australian Shield, which includes the outcrops of Arnhem Land and the Kimberleys in the northwest and the Macdonnell Ranges in the east. A second region, the Great Artesian Basin, lies east of the shield region. The Eastern Uplands, which includes the Great Dividing Range, is a series of high ridges, plateaus, and basins. The fourth region is the Flinders-Mt. Lofty ranges. The country's highest point is Mt. Kosciusko in the Australian Alps; the lowest, Lake Eyre. Major rivers include the Murray-Darling system, the Flinders and Swan rivers, and Cooper Creek. There are many islands and reefs along the country's coast, incl. the Great Barrier Reef, Melville Island, Kangaroo Island, and Tasmania. Australia is rich in mineral resources, incl. coal, petroleum, and uranium. A vast diamond deposit was found in Western Australia in 1979. The country's economy is basically free-enterprise; its largest components include finance, manufacturing, and trade. Formally a constitutional monarchy, its chief of state is the British monarch, represented by the Governor-General. In reality it is a parliamentary state with two legislative houses; its head of government is the prime minister. Australia has long been inhabited by Aborigines (see Australian Aborigine), who arrived 40,000-60,000 years ago. Estimates of the population at the time of European settlement in 1788 range from 300,000 to more than 1 million. Widespread European knowledge of Australia began with 17th-cent. explorations. The Dutch landed in 1616 and the British in 1688, but the first large-scale expedition was that of J. Cook in 1770, which established Britain's claim to Australia. The first English settlement, at Port Jackson (1788), consisted mainly of convicts and seamen; convicts were to make up a large proportion of the incoming settlers. By 1859 the colonial nuclei of all Australia's states had been formed, but with devastating effects on the Aborigines, whose population declined sharply with the introduction of European diseases and weaponry. Britain granted its colonies limited self-government in the mid-19th cent., and an act federating the colonies into a commonwealth was passed in 1900. Australia fought alongside the British in World War I, notably at Gallipoli, and again in World War II, preventing its occupation by the Japanese. It joined the U.S. in the Korean and Vietnam wars. Since the 1960s the government has sought to deal more fairly with the Aborigines, and a loosening of immigration restrictions has led to a more heterogeneous population. Constitutional links allowing British interference in government were formally abolished in 1968, and Australia has assumed a leading role in Asian and Pacific affairs. During the 1990s, it experienced several debates about giving up its British ties and becoming a republic. Background: Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire in 1901. It was able to take advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef. A referendum to change Australia's status, from a commonwealth headed by the British monarch to an independent republic, was defeated in 1999. Geography Australia Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E Map references: Oceania Area: total: 7,686,850 sq km water: 68,920 sq km note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island land: 7,617,930 sq km Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 25,760 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum Land use: arable land: 7% permanent crops: 0% other: 93% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 24,000 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Geography - note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer People Australia Population: 19,546,792 (July 2002 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 20.4% (male 2,046,052; female 1,949,725) 15-64 years: 67% (male 6,610,840; female 6,480,354) 65 years and over: 12.6% (male 1,078,506; female 1,381,315) (2002 est.) Population growth rate: 0.96% (2002 est.) Birth rate: 12.71 births/1,000 population (2002 est.) Death rate: 7.25 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.) Net migration rate: 4.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.) Infant mortality rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80 years female: 83 years (2002 est.) male: 77.15 years Total fertility rate: 1.77 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.15% (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 14,000 (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - deaths: 100 (1999 est.) Nationality: noun: Australian(s) adjective: Australian Ethnic groups: Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1% Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%, non-Christian 11%, other 12.6% Languages: English, native languages Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100% (1980 est.) Government Australia Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia conventional short form: Australia Government type: democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign Capital: Canberra Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies) National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788) Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901 Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Rt. Rev. Dr. Peter HOLLINGWORTH (since 29 June 2001) head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11 March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON (since 20 July 1999) cabinet: Cabinet Parliament nominates, from among its members, a list of candidates to serve as government ministers; from this list, the governor general makes the final selections for the Cabinet elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year term note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats - 12 from each of the six states and two from each of the two mainland territories; one-half of the members elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives (150 seats - this is up from 148 seats in 2001 election; members elected by popular vote on the basis of preferential representation to serve three-year terms; no state can have fewer than five representatives) elections: Senate - last held 10 November 2001 (next to be held by November 2004); House of Representatives - last held 10 November 2001 (next to be held by November 2004) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 35, Australian Labor Party 28, Australian Democrats 8, Green Party 2, One Nation Party 1, Country Labor Party 1, independent 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 82, Australian Labor Party 65, independent and other 3 Judicial branch: High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general) Political parties and leaders: Australian Democrats [Natasha STOTT-DESPOJA]; Australian Labor Party [Simon CREAN]; Country Labor Party [leader NA]; Green Party [Bob BROWN]; Liberal Party [John Winston HOWARD]; National Party [John ANDERSON]; One Nation Party [leader NA] Political pressure groups and leaders: Australian Democratic Labor Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Australian Monarchist League [leader NA]; Australian Republican Movement [leader NA] International organization participation: ANZUS, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMEE, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. THAWLEY consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168 telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000 chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador J. Thomas SCHIEFFER embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 mailing address: APO AP 96549 telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600 FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970 consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars Economy Australia Economy - overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies. The Australian economy has been resilient in the face of the global economic downturn in 2001 chalking up 2.3% GDP growth, as the domestic economy is offsetting the external slump and business and consumer confidence remains robust. Canberra's emphasis on reforms is a key factor behind the economy's strength, and Australia is expected to outperform its trading partners in 2002, with GDP growth projected to be 3% or better. Australia probably will experience some weakness in mid-2002 as its business cycle tends to lag the US by about six months, and larger problems could emerge if Australia's trade position worsens. GDP: purchasing power parity - $465.9 billion (2001 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 2.3% (2001 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,000 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3% industry: 25% services: 72% (2000 est.) Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2% highest 10%: 25.4% (1994) Distribution of family income - Gini index: 35.2 (1994) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (2001 est.) Labor force: 9.2 million (December 2001) Labor force - by occupation: services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture 5% (1997 est.) Unemployment rate: 6.7% (2001) Budget: revenues: $86.8 billion expenditures: $84.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.) Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel Industrial production growth rate: 0.4% (2001 est.) Electricity - production: 202.676 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 89.79% hydro: 8.47% other: 1.74% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 188.489 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000) Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000) Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry Exports: $68.8 billion (2001 est.) Exports - commodities: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat, machinery and transport equipment Exports - partners: Japan 19%, US 9%, South Korea 7%, China 6%, New Zealand 5.8%, Singapore 4% (2001 est.) Imports: $70.2 billion (2001 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products Imports - partners: US 20%, Japan 13%, China 7.7%, UK 6%, Germany 5%, South Korea 4%, NZ 4%, Malaysia 3.6% (2001 est.) Debt - external: $168.7 billion (2001 est.) Economic aid - donor: ODA, $894 million (FY99/00) Currency: Australian dollar (AUD) Currency code: AUD Exchange rates: Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.9354 (January 2002), 1.9320 (2001), 1.7173 (2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997) Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June Communications Australia Telephones - main lines in use: 10.05 million (2000) Telephones - mobile cellular: 8.6 million (2000) Telephone system: general assessment: excellent domestic and international service domestic: domestic satellite system; much use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile cellular telephones international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean regions) (1998) Radio broadcast stations: AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998) Radios: 25.5 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 104 (1997) Televisions: 10.15 million (1997) Internet country code: .au Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 603 (2001) Internet users: 10.06 million (2001) Transportation Australia Railways: total: 33,819 km (2,540 km electrified) broad gauge: 3,719 km 1.600-m gauge narrow gauge: 14,506 km 1.067-m gauge standard gauge: 15,422 km 1.435-m gauge dual gauge: 172 km NA gauges (1999 est.) Highways: total: 913,000 km paved: 353,331 km (including 1,363 km of expressways) unpaved: 559,669 km (1996) Waterways: 8,368 km (mainly used by small, shallow-draft craft) Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km Ports and harbors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport (Tasmania), Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston (Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville Merchant marine: total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,469,362 GRT/1,869,262 DWT ships by type: bulk 26, cargo 5, chemical tanker 4, container 1, liquefied gas 4, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 6, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: France 2, United Kingdom 2, United States 14 (2002 est.) Airports: 421 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 282 over 3,047 m: 10 2,438 to 3,047 m: 11 1,524 to 2,437 m: 128 914 to 1,523 m: 124 under 914 m: 9 (2001) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 139 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16 914 to 1,523 m: 111 under 914 m: 12 (2001) Military Australia Military branches: Royal Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age (2002 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 5,013,406 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 4,321,387 (2002 est.) Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 142,686 (2002 est.) Military expenditures - dollar figure: $9.3 billion (FY01/02 est.) Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY01/02) Transnational Issues Australia Disputes - international: Australia-East Timor-Indonesia are working to resolve maritime boundary and sharing of seabed resources in "Timor Gap"; Australia asserts a territorial claim to Antarctica and to its continental shelf Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate This page was last updated on 1 January 2002 On this page you'll find a wide range of information and statistics not found on other pages of In2Aus. The name Australia comes from the term Incognita Terra Australis, which means Unknown Southern Land. This term was used to describe Australia until the 1600's when the Dutch, followed by others, started to map the country. National Capital: Canberra, ACT. pop 310 000 Largest City: Sydney, pop 4 085 000 Total Population:-Estimate for 05/10/02 National Colours: Green & Gold National Anthem: Advance Australia Fair Royal Anthem: God Save The Queen. (Used in the presence of the Queen or royal family members) Land Area: 7 682 300 square km (Approx the size of the U.S.) Currency:- $A1 = 100 cents (Click the pig to check current exchange rates.) National Floral Emblem: Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha) Measurement System: Metric National Animal Emblem: Kangaroo National Gemstone: Opal Average No of people per sq km:- 2 Australia has 6 states & 2 Territories. They are:- The Australian Capital Territory Capital Area Population Flower Animal Bird Canberra 2330sq km 320 000 Royal Bluebell (Wahlenbergia gloriosa) Gang-Gang Cockatoo New South Wales Capital Area Population Flower Animal Bird Sydney 801600sq km 6,068,900 Waratah (Telopea speciosissima) Platypus Kookaburra The Northern Territory Capital Area Population Flower Animal Bird Darwin 1346200sqkm 182 000 Sturt's Desert Rose (Gossypium sturtianum) Red Kangaroo Wedge-Tailed Eagle Queensland Capital Area Population Flower Animal Bird Brisbane 1727200sq km 3 376 000 Cooktown Orchid (Dendrobium phalaenopsis) Koala Brolga South Australia Capital Area Population Flower Animal Bird Adelaide 984 000sq km 1 490 000 Sturt's Desert Pea (Swainsona formosa) Hairy-Nosed Wombat Piping Shrike Tasmania Capital Area Population Flower Animal Bird Hobart 68 331 sq km 472,000 Tasmanian Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus) Tasmanian Devil (unofficial) Victoria Capital Area Population Flower Animal Bird Melbourne 227 600sq km 4 583 000 Common Heath (Epacris impressa) Leadbeater's Possum Helmeted Honeyeater Western Australia Capital Area Population Flower Animal Bird Perth 2 525 500sq km 1 730 000 Red and Green Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos manglesii) Numbat Black Swan (Cygnus atratus) External Territories:- Territory of Ashmore & Cartier Islands:- Uninhabited coral and sand islands, 320km off the mainland in the Indian Ocean Australian Antarctic Territory:- A large part of the Antarctic, south of 60 deg. latitude between longitudes 45deg E and 160deg E. Total area = 6,199,846 sq km. Christmas Island:- A 135 sq km island, 2623km off Fremantle, WA. Population 1906 ('99) Cocos (Keeling) Islands:- 2768NW of Perth. Population = 655 ('98). Area = 14.2 sq km. Territory of Coral Sea Islands:- A 780 000 sq km area of small islands and reefs. Only population are at the meteorological station Heard & McDonald Islands:- 412 sq km of uninhabited islands, 4100km from SW Western Australia. Norfolk Island:- Area = 34.5 sq km. Population 1772 ('98). Situated 1676 km NE of Sydney. The legal age for:- Drinking Alcohol = ....18 Driving = ...................17 (At 16 & 9 months a permit allows for driving with a licensed driver). Voting = ....................18 Marriage = ................18 (A person under 18 can marry only with an order of a judge or magistrate due to special circumstance. However, under no circumstances can 2 persons under 18 years marry each other.) Smoking Tobacco = 18 (In many public buildings & other public places it is an offence to smoke. Tobacco products are no longer allowed to be advertised in the media or at sporting events). Bits and Pieces Australia has 3 time zones - Western, Central & Eastern. This is further complicated in summer when individual states introduce daylight saving time on dates which may fluctuate from year to year. The U.N. ranks Australia in seventh place for standards of living. This is based on life expectancy, education and income statistics of 174 countries. Some of the report's findings were:- Infant mortality over the last 20 years has dropped from 17 deaths in 1,000 to only five, exports have doubled between 1985 and 1996, and foreign direct investment has quadrupled. (7/'99) Religion Top 6 religions ('96):- Catholic 27.3%, Anglican 23.8%, Uniting 7.5%, Presbyterian and Reformed 3.8% Orthodox 2.8% Other Christian 2.4% 22% of Australians described themselves as regular churchgoers in '96. 17% of the population stated "no religion" on the '96 census. The proportion of the population stating an affiliation with Christianity was 71% in 1996. The Population & Language Over 200 languages are spoken in Australia, including 48 indigenous (1998). Indigenous population approx 386 500 as at last census. The top 5 non English languages spoken at home are (in order):- Italian, Greek, Cantonese, Arabic/Lebanese, Vietnamese. Overseas born Australians:- 21.8% (97-8). Immigrant % of population:- UK & Ireland 5.83% New Zealand 1.58% Italy 1.29% Former Yugoslavia 1.00% Africa 1.00% Americas 0.99% Vietnam 0.82% Average No of people in an Australian household 2.74 (1997). 17,260 Australian-born residents left Australia permanently in 98/99, the most since WWII. The ABS estimates that every day, on average, the population grows by 558 people, 681 babies are born, 369 people die and 246 migrants are added ('99). Average lifespan:- males 75.9 years - females 81.5 years during 1996-98. Australia's life expectancy ranks behind Japan, Sweden, Canada & Switzerland. Media There are three commercial and two government run free to air TV networks. ('01) There are also 3 pay TV operators providing a mix of cable and satellite services. 99% of Aussies have a colour TV, 59.1% have more than 1 TV('96). 79.3% of homes have a video recorder (1996) First Australian TV station:- TCN9, Sydney 1956. First Australian radio station:-2SB (later 2BL) 1912, Pennant Hills, Sydney, NSW. Half of all Australian households have a home computer (11/99). 54% of Aussie households have a home computer and one third have Internet access (5/00). Media magnate Rupert Murdoch is an Aussie export (He's now an American for business purposes). More Bits & Pieces We are the only English speaking country to have compulsory voting in federal & state elections. The majority of Australians (89%) live in a private home with at least one other person(98). 65% of Aussies are satisfied with mains water ('98). Australians use more than a million litres of fresh water per person every year (01) It's estimated that every hour Aussies dump 23000 plastic bags & 50t of plastic (96). 94% of energy consumed in Australia comes from fossil fuels, oil, coal and gas Australia has a very low rate of organ donors- Approx 10 donations per million. 24% of adults smoke (1995). Over 500 ships have been wrecked around the Australian coastline. Shoppers spent $107 billion ($5900 per head) in 96/97. Plantations are now providing more timber than native forests.(00) In '97 most international visitors came from:- Japan 766 000, NZ 621 000, UK 387 000 and the US 309 800. Australia gained 117,300 people through net overseas migration, (98-99).. Total expenditure on health services (including both public and private sectors) was approx $47b . This is an average of $2,536 per person. Governments provided 69.1% and the private sector 30.9% (97-98). In 1998, the 25-44 age group had the highest rate of suicide (23 per 100,000). (00) There were 2683 suicides registered in 1998, 40 less than in 1997. (00) The suicide rate in 1998 was similar to 1921 at 14 suicides per 100,000 persons. (00) Australians are the second most obese nation in the world. (01) There are 300 000 camels (an introduced species) in Australia and Australia has the largest number of wild ranging single humped dromedary in the world. (01) Education Education is compulsory for 6-15 year olds (16 in Tas.). There were 3,226,674 full-time school students in Aug 1999. Of these, 70% attended government schools and 979,000 (30%) attended non - government schools. In Aug 99, there were 9,588 schools in Australia, 73% were government schools and 27% were non-government schools. In 1998, 72% of students went on to Year 12. In 2000 80.8% of 16 year olds and 61.6% of 17 year olds were at school. Percentage of GDP spent on education 5.2% (97/98) Australian students aged 15 years perform well in literacy and numeracy compared with other countries. Only Finnish students scored notably higher in reading literacy, and only Japanese students scored notably higher in mathematical literacy.(6/02) Law & Order There are approx 175 local courts in each state, dealing with around 98% of all cases. Number of officers in the Australian police forces:- 42 307 (7/98). Firearms were used in 19% of both murders and attempted murders (98) $7.3b (or $391 per person) was spent on public order and safety (97/98) There were 132,967 recorded victims of assault in 1998, 709 victims per 100,000 persons. Percentage of sentenced prisoners included:- 9.7% for Homicide, Assault 10.9%, Sex Offences 12.3%, Robbery 13.7%, Break & Enter 11.8%.(6/2000) The number of people in prison has increased by 50% over the decade to 30 June 2001 No of prisoners in Australia on 30 June 2001 was 22,458. The rate of imprisonment was 151 prisoners per 100,000 adult population.(2001) The Northern Territory rate of 458 prisoners per 100,000 adult pop' was 3 times the national average. 96% of prisoners were male as at 30 June 2000. On 1 Sept 99, there were 688 federal sentenced prisoners in Australia.(99) 131,572 motor vehicles were recorded stolen in Australia during 1998. Recreation . Average weekly household spending on recreation = $76.38 (1993/94) 35% of the population aged 15+ attended animal & marine parks.(94/5) 62% of the population aged 15+ attended cinemas in the last year (94/5) 7.7% of the population aged 15+ attended classical music concerts (94/5) 33% of the population aged 10+ went fishing at least once a year (1984) 87.9% of males aged 18+ read a newspaper in the last week (1995) 82.4% of females aged 18+ read a newspaper in the last week (1995) In the 12 months ending Apr 99, 7 million persons, or 47.1% of Australians aged 15+ attended sporting matches or competitions. Most popular spectator sports:-Australian Rules - 2.5 million persons, Horse racing - 1.8 million, motor sports 1.6 million, Rugby League 1.5 million (99). Cricket, soccer, harness racing & basketball all attracted over .5 million persons (99). 32% of people aged 15+ were involved in playing or organizing a sport at least once in the 12-months to 3/97. 30.3% of people aged 18+ participated in organized sport/physical activity in 98/99 61.4% of males & 50.1% of females aged 15-19 participated in sport (95) Highest participation rate in sport - Northern Territory (1995) Lowest participation rate in sport - NSW (1995) In 1996 approx 700 million videos were hired. 39.5% of adults watched a video in the last week (1994) 97 percent) aged 5 to 14 years watched TV or videos during their free time. (2/01) 69% of children 5-14yo played computer games in the last 2 weeks (2/01) 59% of Aussie kids participated in organized sports in their free time, with boys (66%) more likely to do so than girls (52%). (2/01) The most popular organized sports for boys were outdoor soccer (20% of participants), swimming (13%) and Australian Rules football (also 13%). Netball was top for girls (18% of participants), followed by swimming (16%) and tennis (8%) (2/01). Gambling There are 13 casinos in Australia, recording a total operating profit of $452 million, which represents an operating profit margin of 15.1%. (1999-2000) The total income of casinos was $3,038 million, of which $2,397 million was from gambling income Total income of gambling industry -$15 511m (1995) Australians spend more on betting than food! The state of NSW (pop. approx 6.5m) has 10% of the worlds poker machines!!! Expenditure on legalized gambling exceeded $11b (97-98). % of household disposable income spent on gambling - 3.2% (97/98). 7,072 businesses providing gambling services with a total income from gambling of $11,091m (97/98). An increase of 42% in gambling income since 1994-95. Transport Total of bitumen & concrete roads 306 187 km (June 1996). No of motor vehicles registered = 10 650 902 Plus 296 628 motor cycles (1995). There were 647 vehicles for every 1000 of population (1999) 64.8% of workers travelled to work by car in 1996 and 8.9% used public transport. Australians buy more four wheel drive vehicles per head of population than any other country (1997). Deaths due to motor vehicle accidents account for over a third of all deaths for male teenagers (2000). For the first time ever, uniform road rules across all states and territories in Australia started from 1Mar00. Australian drivers travelled 178 billion km in the 12mths to 7/99.18bill for passenger vehicles. 88% of all vehicles were passenger vehicles (7/99) Average km travelled in the previous 12mths by articulated trucks 85,900 km (7/99). In total 25 bill litres of fuel was used. Unleaded petrol accounted for over 50% of all fuel consumed during the period at 13 billion litres. (7/99) Passenger vehicles used a total of 16 billion litres of fuel, of which 87 per cent was petrol. Over half of all motor vehicle usage was for business or travel to and from work (97/98). All motorists must wear seat belts. All bicyclist must wear a bike helmet. The legal age for a car license is 17. We drive on the left side of the road. Mining (see trade & industry for more) The mining industry contributed $16 889m or 4% of GDP (1994/5). Before tax profit increased in the mining industry by 7% to $6.6 billion in 1998-99. Turnover in the industry dropped by $179 million (less than 1%) (98/99). The coal mining fell $261m (2%) gold ore by $127m (2%). (98/99). Increases occurred in iron ore, up $215m (5%) and the copper ore $209m (10%) (98/99). Coal mining provided (31%) of total turnover for the industry (98/99). Oil and gas extraction is the second largest contributor (25%) (98/99). Employment in mining decreased by 4,282 people (8%) to 50,532 (97/98). Australia is the largest exporter of alumina, black coal, diamonds, iron ore, lead and mineral sands, the second largest exporter of zinc & the third largest exporter of aluminium and gold.
Вовне представительстваOutside representations
Персоны известныеPersons Извне представительстваInside representations
Военные, оборонка, безопасностьMilitary, arms, securityОтзывыOpinions
Экзы - войны, бедствияExes - wars, disastersПродукция, экспортProduction, export
Правоприменение, криминал, тюрьмыLaw enforcement, crime, prisonsБиблиографияBibliography
Ликвидация, угрозы, разделLiquidation, threats, partitionСетьWeb