panlog πάντα διὰ πάντων
तत् त्वम् असि
جهان است ل
СакралSakral ФинансыFinances ЛитератураLiterature ИскусстваArt НовостиNews Eng / RusEng / Rus
СправкиInfo РасписанияShedules СоциомирыSocial world НаукиScience ДобавитьAdd МыWe

Афганистан (Исламское Государство Афганистан) страна ныне Азия Центральная Afghanistan (Islamic Republic of Afghanistan) country current Asia Central

СозданиеCreationУчредители, первое лицоFounders, supreme authorityПравительствоGovernmentПарламентParliamentОппозиция, обществнностьOpposition, public
Конституция, законы, инсигнииConstitution, laws, insigniaРейтингиRatingsЭкономика, ресурсыEconomics, resourcesСоциалкаSocialФинансы, бюджетFinances, budget
Место в мировой системеPlace in world system
Площадь 652.230 кв км, население  33.332.025 (июль 2016, оценочно), независимость от Великобритании с 1919 (День Независимости 19 августа), президентская Исламская республика (c 1992), столица Кабул (4,635 млн чел в 2015), 34 вилайята (провинций), ВВП по паритету покупательной способности $64,08 млрд (в 2016 оценочно), Президент и премьер Ашраф ГАНИ Ахмадзай с 29 сентября 2014, CEO (главный исполнительный директор) Абдуллах АБДУЛЛАХ с 29 сентября 2014

2017-03-07 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html
  • Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian Empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a 1973 coup and a 1978 communist countercoup. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew in 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-communist mujahidin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Usama BIN LADIN.
    A UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election in 2004, and National Assembly elections in 2005. In December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan, and the National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. KARZAI was reelected in August 2009 for a second term. The 2014 presidential election was the country's first to include a runoff, which featured the top two vote-getters from the first round, Abdullah ABDULLAH and Ashraf GHANI. Throughout the summer of 2014, their campaigns disputed the results and traded accusations of fraud, leading to a US-led diplomatic intervention that included a full vote audit as well as political negotiations between the two camps. In September 2014, GHANI and ABDULLAH agreed to form the Government of National Unity, with GHANI inaugurated as president and ABDULLAH elevated to the newly-created position of chief executive officer. The day after the inauguration, the GHANI administration signed the US-Afghan Bilateral Security Agreement and NATO Status of Forces Agreement, which provide the legal basis for the post-2014 international military presence in Afghanistan.
    Despite gains toward building a stable central government, the Taliban remains a serious challenge for the Afghan Government in almost every province. The Taliban still considers itself the rightful government of Afghanistan, and it remains a capable and confident insurgent force despite its last two spiritual leaders being killed; it continues to declare that it will pursue a peace deal with Kabul only after foreign military forces depart.
  • Hide

    Geography :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Location:
    Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran
    Geographic coordinates:
    33 00 N, 65 00 E
    Map references:
    Asia
    Area:
    total: 652,230 sq km
    land: 652,230 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Area - comparative:
    almost six times the size of Virginia; slightly smaller than Texas
    Area comparison map:
    Land boundaries:
    total: 5,987 km
    border countries (6): China 91 km, Iran 921 km, Pakistan 2,670 km, Tajikistan 1,357 km, Turkmenistan 804 km, Uzbekistan 144 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
    Terrain:
    mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 1,884 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
    highest point: Noshak 7,485 m
    Natural resources:
    natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones, arable land
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 58.1%
    arable land 11.9%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 46%
    forest: 2.1%
    other: 39.8% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    32,080 sq km (2012)
    Population - distribution:
    populations tend to cluster in the foothills and periphery of the rugged Hindu Kush range; smaller groups are found in many of the country's interior valleys; in general, the east is more densely settled while the south is sparsely populated
    Natural hazards:
    damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)
  • Hide

    People and Society :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Population:
    33,332,025 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Nationality:
    noun: Afghan(s)
    adjective: Afghan
    Ethnic groups:
    Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai, and Kyrghyz)
    note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan is not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai (2015)
    Languages:
    Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism, but Dari functions as the lingua franca
    note: the Turkic languages Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashai, Nuristani, and Pamiri are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks them
    Religions:
    Muslim 99.7% (Sunni 84.7 - 89.7%, Shia 10 - 15%), other 0.3% (2009 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 41.03% (male 6,947,939/female 6,728,983)
    15-24 years: 22.49% (male 3,816,369/female 3,678,657)
    25-54 years: 30.01% (male 5,095,905/female 4,907,019)
    55-64 years: 3.9% (male 640,813/female 660,121)
    65 years and over: 2.57% (male 396,124/female 460,095) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 87%
    youth dependency ratio: 82.3%
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.6%
    potential support ratio: 21.7% (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 18.6 years
    male: 18.5 years
    female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    Population growth rate:
    2.34% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Birth rate:
    38.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Death rate:
    13.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Net migration rate:
    -1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Population distribution:
    populations tend to cluster in the foothills and periphery of the rugged Hindu Kush range; smaller groups are found in many of the country's interior valleys; in general, the east is more densely settled while the south is sparsely populated
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 26.7% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 3.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    KABUL (capital) 4.635 million (2015)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

    20.1
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    396 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 112.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 120.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 105 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 51.3 years
    male: 49.9 years
    female: 52.7 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 222
    Total fertility rate:
    5.22 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    21.2% (2010/11)
    Health expenditures:
    8.2% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Physicians density:
    0.27 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    Hospital bed density:
    0.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    Drinking water source:
    improved:
    urban: 78.2% of population
    rural: 47% of population
    total: 55.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 21.8% of population
    rural: 53% of population
    total: 44.7% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved:
    urban: 45.1% of population
    rural: 27% of population
    total: 31.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 54.9% of population
    rural: 73% of population
    total: 68.1% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.04% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    6,900 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    300 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: intermediate
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    2.4% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Education expenditures:
    3.4% of GDP (2015)
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 38.2%
    male: 52%
    female: 24.2% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 11 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 8 years (2014)
    Child labor - children ages 5-14:
    total number: 2,082,722
    percentage: 25.3%
    note: data on child labor in Afghanistan is uncertain and may be higher than the estimated 25.3% of children ages 5-14 derived from 2010-11 survey results; UNICEF estimated that 30% of children ages 5-14 in 2011 were engaged in child labor (2010/11 est.)
  • Hide

    Government :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
    conventional short form: Afghanistan
    local long form: Jamhuri-ye Islami-ye Afghanistan
    local short form: Afghanistan
    former: Republic of Afghanistan
    etymology: the name "Afghan" originally referred to the Pashtun people (today it is understood to include all the country's ethnic groups), while the suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country"; so Afghanistan literally means the "Land of the Afghans"
    Government type:
    presidential Islamic republic
    Capital:
    name: Kabul
    geographic coordinates: 34 31 N, 69 11 E
    time difference: UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    34 provinces (welayat, singular - welayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Daykundi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghor, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabul, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khost, Kunar, Kunduz, Laghman, Logar, Nangarhar, Nimroz, Nuristan, Paktika, Paktiya, Panjshir, Parwan, Samangan, Sar-e Pul, Takhar, Uruzgan, Wardak, Zabul
    Independence:
    19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 19 August (1919)
    Constitution:
    several previous; latest drafted 14 December 2003 - 4 January 2004, signed 16 January 2004, ratified 26 January 2004; note - a provision in the constitution prohibits changes until 2020 (2016)
    Legal system:
    mixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic law
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must have been born in - and continuously lived in - Afghanistan
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (since 29 September 2014); CEO Abdullah ABDULLAH (since 29 September 2014); First Vice President Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (since 29 September 2014); Second Vice President Sarwar DANESH (since 29 September 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (since 29 September 2014 ); CEO Abdullah ABDULLAH (since 29 September 2014); First Vice President Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (since 29 September 2014 ); Second Vice President Sarwar DANESH (since 29 September 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet consists of 26 ministers appointed by the president, approved by the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held in 2 rounds on 5 April and 14 June 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: percent of vote in first round - Abdullah ABDULLAH (National Coalition of Afghanistan) 45%, Ashraf GHANI (independent) 31.6%, Zalmai RASSOUL 11.4%, other 12%; percent of vote in second round - Ashraf GHANI 56.4%, Abdullah ABDULLAH 43.6%
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats; 34 members indirectly elected by district councils to serve 3-year terms, 34 indirectly elected by provincial councils to serve 4-year terms, and 34 nominated by the president of which 17 must be women, 2 must represent the disabled, and 2 must be Kuchi nomads; members serve 5-year terms) and the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (249 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
    note: the constitution allows the government to convene a constitutional Loya Jirga (Grand Council) on issues of independence, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity; it can amend the provisions of the constitution and prosecute the president; it consists of members of the National Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and district councils; no constitutional Loya Jirga has ever been held, and district councils have never been elected; the president appointed 34 members of the Meshrano Jirga that the district councils should have indirectly elected
    elections: the Wolesi Jirga’s five-year term expired in 2015, but the president extended its term by decree until elections can be held
    election results: results by party - NA; seats by party - NA
    Judicial branch:
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Stera Mahkama (consists of the supreme court chief and 8 justices organized into criminal, public security, civil, and commercial divisions or dewans)
    judge selection and term of office: court chief and justices appointed by the president with the approval of the Wolesi Jirga; court chief and justices serve single 10-year terms
    subordinate courts: Appeals Courts; Primary Courts; Special Courts for issues including narcotics, security, property, family, and juveniles
    Political parties and leaders:
    note - the Ministry of Justice licensed 67 political parties as of September 2015
    Political pressure groups and leaders:
    other: religious groups, tribal leaders, ethnically based groups, Taliban
    International organization participation:
    ADB, CICA, CP, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (dialogue member), UN, UNAMA, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Hamdullah MOHIB (since 17 September 2015)
    chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 483-6410
    FAX: [1] (202) 483-6488
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York, Washington, DC
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador P. Michael MCKINLEY (since 22 December 2014)
    embassy: Bibi Mahru, Kabul
    mailing address: U.S. Embassy Kabul, APO, AE 09806
    telephone: [00 93] 0700 108 001
    FAX: [00 93] 0700 108 564
    Flag description:
    three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), red, and green, with the national emblem in white centered on the red band and slightly overlapping the other two bands; the center of the emblem features a mosque with pulpit and flags on either side, below the mosque are numerals for the solar year 1298 (1919 in the Gregorian calendar, the year of Afghan independence from the UK); this central image is circled by a border consisting of sheaves of wheat on the left and right, in the upper-center is an Arabic inscription of the Shahada (Muslim creed) below which are rays of the rising sun over the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning "God is great"), and at bottom center is a scroll bearing the name Afghanistan; black signifies the past, red is for the blood shed for independence, and green can represent either hope for the future, agricultural prosperity, or Islam
    note: Afghanistan had more changes to its national flag in the 20th century than any other country; the colors black, red, and green appeared on most of them
    National symbol(s):
    lion; national colors: red, green, black
    National anthem:
    name: "Milli Surood" (National Anthem)
    lyrics/music: Abdul Bari JAHANI/Babrak WASA
    note: adopted 2006; the 2004 constitution of the post-Taliban government mandated that a new national anthem should be written containing the phrase "Allahu Akbar" (God is Greatest) and mentioning the names of Afghanistan's ethnic groups
  • Hide

    Economy :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Economy - overview:
    Afghanistan's economy is recovering from decades of conflict. The economy has improved significantly since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001 largely because of the infusion of international assistance, the recovery of the agricultural sector, and service sector growth. Despite the progress of the past few years, Afghanistan is extremely poor, landlocked, and highly dependent on foreign aid. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of housing, clean water, electricity, medical care, and jobs. Criminality, insecurity, weak governance, lack of infrastructure, and the Afghan Government's difficulty in extending rule of law to all parts of the country pose challenges to future economic growth. Afghanistan's living standards are among the lowest in the world.
    The international community remains committed to Afghanistan's development, pledging over $67 billion at nine donors' conferences between 2003 and 2010. In July 2012, the donors at the Tokyo conference pledged an additional $16 billion in civilian aid through 2015. Despite this help, the Government of Afghanistan will need to overcome a number of challenges, including low revenue collection, anemic job creation, high levels of corruption, weak government capacity, and poor public infrastructure.
    Afghanistan's growth rate slowed markedly in 2014-15. The drawdown of international security forces that started in 2014 has negatively affected economic growth, as a substantial portion of commerce, especially in the services sector, has catered to the ongoing international troop presence in the country. Afghan President Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai is dedicated to instituting economic reforms to include improving revenue collection and fighting corruption. However, the reforms will take time to implement and Afghanistan will remain dependent on international donor support over the next several years.
    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $64.08 billion (2016 est.)
    $62.82 billion (2015 est.)
    $62.35 billion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 104
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $18.4 billion (2014 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    2% (2016 est.)
    0.8% (2015 est.)
    1.3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $2,000 (2016 est.)
    $2,000 (2015 est.)
    $2,000 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Gross national saving:
    23.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    23.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    20% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 108.6%
    government consumption: 12.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 18.2%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 6.6%
    imports of goods and services: -46.2% (2014 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 24%
    industry: 21%
    services: 55%
    note: data exclude opium production (2014 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    opium, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins, poppies
    Industries:
    small-scale production of bricks, textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper
    Industrial production growth rate:
    2.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Labor force:
    7.983 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 78.6%
    industry: 5.7%
    services: 15.7% (FY08/09 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    35% (2008 est.)
    40% (2005 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Population below poverty line:
    35.8% (2011 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 3.8%
    highest 10%: 24% (2008)
    Budget:
    revenues: $1.7 billion
    expenditures: $6.639 billion (2015 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    9.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -26.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    Fiscal year:
    21 December - 20 December
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    4.5% (2016 est.)
    -1.5% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    15% (31 December 2015 est.)
    15% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Stock of narrow money:
    $6.644 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.192 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Stock of broad money:
    $6.945 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.544 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $-454 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $-767.8 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $NA
    Current account balance:
    $827 million (2016 est.)
    $925 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Exports:
    $658 million (2014 est.)
    $2.679 billion (2013 est.)
    note: not including illicit exports or reexports
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Exports - commodities:
    opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
    Exports - partners:
    India 42.3%, Pakistan 29%, Tajikistan 7.6% (2015)
    Imports:
    $7.004 billion (2014 est.)
    $12.19 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products
    Imports - partners:
    Pakistan 38.6%, India 8.9%, US 8.3%, Turkmenistan 6.2%, China 6%, Kazakhstan 5.9%, Azerbaijan 4.9% (2015)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $6.232 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $6.681 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Debt - external:
    $1.28 billion (FY10/11)
    $2.7 billion (FY08/09)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Exchange rates:
    afghanis (AFA) per US dollar -
    61.14 (2016 est.)
    61.14 (2015 est.)
    61.14 (2014 est.)
    57.25 (2013 est.)
    46.45 (2010)
  • Hide

    Energy :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Electricity - production:
    1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Electricity - consumption:
    4.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Electricity - imports:
    3.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    600,000 kW (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    35.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    64.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    130,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    127,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Natural gas - production:
    159.6 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Natural gas - consumption:
    159.6 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    49.55 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    7.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
  • Hide

    Communications :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 110,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total: 19.709 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 61 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: limited fixed-line telephone service; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks
    domestic: aided by the presence of multiple providers, mobile-cellular telephone service continues to improve rapidly; the Afghan Ministry of Communications and Information claims that more than 90 percent of the population live in areas with access to mobile-cellu
    international: country code - 93; multiple VSAT's provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity (2012)
    Broadcast media:
    state-owned broadcaster, Radio Television Afghanistan (RTA), operates a series of radio and television stations in Kabul and the provinces; an estimated 150 private radio stations, 50 TV stations, and about a dozen international broadcasters are available (2007)
    Internet country code:
    .af
    Internet users:
    total: 2.69 million
    percent of population: 8.3% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
  • Hide

    Transportation :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 4
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 20
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,929,907
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 33,102,038 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    YA (2016)
    Airports:
    43 (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 25
    over 3,047 m: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 18
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m: 5 (2016)
    Heliports:
    9 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    gas 466 km (2013)
    Roadways:
    total: 42,150 km
    paved: 12,350 km
    unpaved: 29,800 km (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Waterways:
    1,200 km; (chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Ports and terminals:
    river port(s): Kheyrabad, Shir Khan
  • Hide

    Military and Security :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Military branches:
    Afghan National Security Forces: Afghan National Army (includes Afghan Air Force), Afghan National Police, Afghan Local Police (2016)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2016)
    Military expenditures:
    28.09% of GDP (2016)
    4.74% of GDP (2011)
  • Hide

    Transnational Issues :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Disputes - international:
    Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps and since 2014 have met to discuss collaboration on the Taliban insurgency and counterterrorism efforts; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey; Iran protests Afghanistan's restricting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 257,523 (Pakistan) (2015)
    IDPs: 1,174,306 (mostly Pashtuns and Kuchis displaced in the south and west due to drought and political instability) (2015)
    Illicit drugs:
    world's largest producer of opium; poppy cultivation increased 7 percent, to a record 211,000 hectares in 2014 from 198,000 hectares in 2013, while eradication dropped sharply; relatively low opium yields due to poor weather kept potential opium production - 6,300 metric tons - below the record set in 2007; the Taliban and other antigovernment groups participate in and profit from the opiate trade, which is a key source of revenue for the Taliban inside Afghanistan; widespread corruption and instability impede counterdrug efforts; most of the heroin consumed in Europe and Eurasia is derived from Afghan opium; Afghanistan is also struggling to respond to a burgeoning domestic opiate addiction problem; vulnerable to drug money laundering through informal financial networks; illicit cultivation of cannabis and regional source of hashish


http://stranymira.com/2007/01/30/afganistan.html 
Исламское государство Афганистан (до 1992 года — Демократическая Республика Афганистан) — страна в Юго-Западной Азии, граничит с Ираном, Пакистаном, Индией, Китаем, Таджикистаном, Узбекистаном и Туркменистаном. Площадь Афганистана 652,2 тыс. км2. Население — 26,7 млн. человек: свыше 1/2 — афганцы, а также таджики, узбеки, туркмены, хазарейцы и др. Административно-теориториальное деление: 29 провинций (вилаятов) и 2 округа центрального подчинения. Столица страны — Кабул. Государственные языки — пушту и дари. Господствующая религия — ислам.
Большую часть территории Афганистана занимают горы. С востока на запад протянулись хребты Гиндукуша (до 6729 м), включающие пояс вечных снегов. В южной части страны находится Газни–Кандагарское плоскогорье, а на северных и юго-западных окраинах — пустынные равнины. Растительность отличается большим разнообразием, но почти повсеместно, даже в юго-восточной области, испытывающей влияние муссонов, в ней преобладают засухоустойчивые виды. Только в орошаемой Джелалабадской долине растут финиковые пальмы, кипарисы, оливковые деревья, цитрусовые.
Первые афганские государственные образования возникли в 16 веке. В 1747-1818 существовала Дурранийская держава. В 19 веке Англия предприняла несколько попыток подчинить Афганистан (англо-афганские войны). Эти попытки закончились провалом, но англичане добились установления контроля над внешней политикой Афганистана. В 1919 году правительство Амануллы-хана провозгласило независимость Афганистана. В июле 1973 Афганистан был провозглашен республикой. В 1978 Народно-демократическая партия Афганистана совершила государственный переворот и провозгласила курс на построение социализма. В стране началась гражданская война. В 1979 в Афганистан были введены советские войска, которые помогали НДПА удерживать власть. Вскоре после вывода советских войск (1989) к власти в 1992 пришли моджахеды — сторонники исламского государства. Однако гражданская война на этом не закончилась: противоречия между отдельными исламскими группировками приводили к все новым и новым конфликтам. В середине 1990-х годов большая часть территории Афганистана (включая Кабул) оказалась под контролем фундаменталистов из движения «Талибан». В октябре 2001 года власть талибов, обвиненных в пособничестве мировому терроризму, была свергнута силами США и их союзников.
Столица — древний город Кабул (1,4 млн. человек), выгодно расположен на перекрестке важных транспортных путей. Другие крупные города — Мазари-Шариф, издавна известный как центр ремесленного производства и торговли с красочным восточным базаром; старинный Герат — оазис и культурный центр, где в ХV веке была воздвигнута гигантская мечеть Джума-Масджид.
Афганистан — аграрная страна, основу экономики которой всегда составляло пастбищное животноводство. Война, начавшаяся в конце 1970-х годов, нанесла огромный урон экономике страны, значительно разрушив сложившуюся инфраструктуру сельского хозяйства и уничтожив сотни библиотек, школ, больниц.
 
ОСНОВНЫЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ  http://worldgeo.ru/asia/afg/
Столица: город Кабул
Территория: Площадь652 000 км² 
(40 место в мире)
Использование земель
(2011 год, CIA)
Площадь пашни: 11,9%
Плодово-ягодные насаждения: 0,2%
Территория пастбищ: 46,0%
Площадь лесов: 2,1%
Население: Численность31 822 848 чел.
(40 место в мире, июль 2014 г., CIA)
Плотность48,8 чел./км²
 
Урбанизация
городское население 26.3%
сельское население 73.7%
 
Прогноз численности
(по данным ООН)
2025 год 44 934 тыс. чел.
2050 год 61 004 тыс. чел.
 
Изменение численности
(на 1000 человек в 2014 году)
Количество новорожденных: 38,84
Количество умерших: 14,12
Количество мигрантов: -1,83
Годовой прирост населения: 2,29%
 
Распределение численности
(июль 2014 года, тыс. чел.)
возраст мужчин женщин всего
от 0 до 14 лет 6 794 6 579 42,0%
от 15 до 24 лет 3 600 3 465 22,2%
от 25 до 54 лет 4 771 4 587 29,4%
от 55 до 64 лет 603 623 3,9%
более 65 лет 372 429 2,5%
 
показатель мужчин женщин всех
средний возраст населения (лет) 18,1 18,2 18,1
средняя продолжительность жизни (лет) 49,2 51,9 50,5
уровень грамотности
(2015 год)
52% 24% 38%
 
Количество мужчин на 1000 женщин 1029
Средн. число детей у одной женщины 5,4
Крупные города:  
город население координаты
Кабул 2 142 300 34° 32' с.ш.
69° 10' в.д.
Кандагар 339 200 31° 37' с.ш.
65° 41' в.д.
Мазари-Шариф 239 800 36° 42' с.ш.
67° 6' в.д.
Чарикар 196 700 35° 1' с.ш.
69° 10' в.д.
Герат 166 600 34° 21' с.ш.
62° 11' в.д.
Джелалабад 158 800 34° 26' с.ш.
70° 26' в.д.
Файзабад 148 500 37° 8' с.ш.
70° 35' в.д.
Границы:
Территория граничит с
Китаем 76 км
Ираном 936 км
Пакистаном 2430 км
Таджикистаном 1206 км
Туркменистаном 744 км
Узбекистаном 137 км
Общая протяженность границ 5529 км
Береговая линия: 0 км
  Сохранить  
The area is 652.230 square kilometers, the population is 33.332.025 (July 2016, estimated), independence from Great Britain since 1919 (Independence Day on August 19), the presidential Islamic republic (since 1992), the capital of Kabul (4,635 million in 2015), 34 provinces (welayat), GDP at purchasing power parity of $ 64.08 billion (in 2016 estimated), President and Prime Minister Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai since September 29, 2014, CEO (Chief Executive Officer) Abdullah ABDULLAH since September 29, 2014

2017-03-07 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html
  • Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian Empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a 1973 coup and a 1978 communist countercoup. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew in 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-communist mujahidin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Usama BIN LADIN.
    A UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election in 2004, and National Assembly elections in 2005. In December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan, and the National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. KARZAI was reelected in August 2009 for a second term. The 2014 presidential election was the country's first to include a runoff, which featured the top two vote-getters from the first round, Abdullah ABDULLAH and Ashraf GHANI. Throughout the summer of 2014, their campaigns disputed the results and traded accusations of fraud, leading to a US-led diplomatic intervention that included a full vote audit as well as political negotiations between the two camps. In September 2014, GHANI and ABDULLAH agreed to form the Government of National Unity, with GHANI inaugurated as president and ABDULLAH elevated to the newly-created position of chief executive officer. The day after the inauguration, the GHANI administration signed the US-Afghan Bilateral Security Agreement and NATO Status of Forces Agreement, which provide the legal basis for the post-2014 international military presence in Afghanistan.
    Despite gains toward building a stable central government, the Taliban remains a serious challenge for the Afghan Government in almost every province. The Taliban still considers itself the rightful government of Afghanistan, and it remains a capable and confident insurgent force despite its last two spiritual leaders being killed; it continues to declare that it will pursue a peace deal with Kabul only after foreign military forces depart.
  • Hide

    Geography :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Location:
    Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran
    Geographic coordinates:
    33 00 N, 65 00 E
    Map references:
    Asia
    Area:
    total: 652,230 sq km
    land: 652,230 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Area - comparative:
    almost six times the size of Virginia; slightly smaller than Texas
    Area comparison map:
    Land boundaries:
    total: 5,987 km
    border countries (6): China 91 km, Iran 921 km, Pakistan 2,670 km, Tajikistan 1,357 km, Turkmenistan 804 km, Uzbekistan 144 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
    Terrain:
    mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 1,884 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
    highest point: Noshak 7,485 m
    Natural resources:
    natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones, arable land
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 58.1%
    arable land 11.9%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 46%
    forest: 2.1%
    other: 39.8% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    32,080 sq km (2012)
    Population - distribution:
    populations tend to cluster in the foothills and periphery of the rugged Hindu Kush range; smaller groups are found in many of the country's interior valleys; in general, the east is more densely settled while the south is sparsely populated
    Natural hazards:
    damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)
  • Hide

    People and Society :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Population:
    33,332,025 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Nationality:
    noun: Afghan(s)
    adjective: Afghan
    Ethnic groups:
    Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai, and Kyrghyz)
    note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan is not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai (2015)
    Languages:
    Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism, but Dari functions as the lingua franca
    note: the Turkic languages Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashai, Nuristani, and Pamiri are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks them
    Religions:
    Muslim 99.7% (Sunni 84.7 - 89.7%, Shia 10 - 15%), other 0.3% (2009 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 41.03% (male 6,947,939/female 6,728,983)
    15-24 years: 22.49% (male 3,816,369/female 3,678,657)
    25-54 years: 30.01% (male 5,095,905/female 4,907,019)
    55-64 years: 3.9% (male 640,813/female 660,121)
    65 years and over: 2.57% (male 396,124/female 460,095) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 87%
    youth dependency ratio: 82.3%
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.6%
    potential support ratio: 21.7% (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 18.6 years
    male: 18.5 years
    female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    Population growth rate:
    2.34% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Birth rate:
    38.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Death rate:
    13.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Net migration rate:
    -1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Population distribution:
    populations tend to cluster in the foothills and periphery of the rugged Hindu Kush range; smaller groups are found in many of the country's interior valleys; in general, the east is more densely settled while the south is sparsely populated
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 26.7% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 3.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    KABUL (capital) 4.635 million (2015)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

    20.1
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    396 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 112.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 120.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 105 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 51.3 years
    male: 49.9 years
    female: 52.7 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 222
    Total fertility rate:
    5.22 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    21.2% (2010/11)
    Health expenditures:
    8.2% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Physicians density:
    0.27 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    Hospital bed density:
    0.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    Drinking water source:
    improved:
    urban: 78.2% of population
    rural: 47% of population
    total: 55.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 21.8% of population
    rural: 53% of population
    total: 44.7% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved:
    urban: 45.1% of population
    rural: 27% of population
    total: 31.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 54.9% of population
    rural: 73% of population
    total: 68.1% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.04% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    6,900 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    300 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: intermediate
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    2.4% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Education expenditures:
    3.4% of GDP (2015)
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 38.2%
    male: 52%
    female: 24.2% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 11 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 8 years (2014)
    Child labor - children ages 5-14:
    total number: 2,082,722
    percentage: 25.3%
    note: data on child labor in Afghanistan is uncertain and may be higher than the estimated 25.3% of children ages 5-14 derived from 2010-11 survey results; UNICEF estimated that 30% of children ages 5-14 in 2011 were engaged in child labor (2010/11 est.)
  • Hide

    Government :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
    conventional short form: Afghanistan
    local long form: Jamhuri-ye Islami-ye Afghanistan
    local short form: Afghanistan
    former: Republic of Afghanistan
    etymology: the name "Afghan" originally referred to the Pashtun people (today it is understood to include all the country's ethnic groups), while the suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country"; so Afghanistan literally means the "Land of the Afghans"
    Government type:
    presidential Islamic republic
    Capital:
    name: Kabul
    geographic coordinates: 34 31 N, 69 11 E
    time difference: UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    34 provinces (welayat, singular - welayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Daykundi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghor, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabul, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khost, Kunar, Kunduz, Laghman, Logar, Nangarhar, Nimroz, Nuristan, Paktika, Paktiya, Panjshir, Parwan, Samangan, Sar-e Pul, Takhar, Uruzgan, Wardak, Zabul
    Independence:
    19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 19 August (1919)
    Constitution:
    several previous; latest drafted 14 December 2003 - 4 January 2004, signed 16 January 2004, ratified 26 January 2004; note - a provision in the constitution prohibits changes until 2020 (2016)
    Legal system:
    mixed legal system of civil, customary, and Islamic law
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must have been born in - and continuously lived in - Afghanistan
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (since 29 September 2014); CEO Abdullah ABDULLAH (since 29 September 2014); First Vice President Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (since 29 September 2014); Second Vice President Sarwar DANESH (since 29 September 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (since 29 September 2014 ); CEO Abdullah ABDULLAH (since 29 September 2014); First Vice President Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (since 29 September 2014 ); Second Vice President Sarwar DANESH (since 29 September 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet consists of 26 ministers appointed by the president, approved by the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held in 2 rounds on 5 April and 14 June 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: percent of vote in first round - Abdullah ABDULLAH (National Coalition of Afghanistan) 45%, Ashraf GHANI (independent) 31.6%, Zalmai RASSOUL 11.4%, other 12%; percent of vote in second round - Ashraf GHANI 56.4%, Abdullah ABDULLAH 43.6%
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats; 34 members indirectly elected by district councils to serve 3-year terms, 34 indirectly elected by provincial councils to serve 4-year terms, and 34 nominated by the president of which 17 must be women, 2 must represent the disabled, and 2 must be Kuchi nomads; members serve 5-year terms) and the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (249 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
    note: the constitution allows the government to convene a constitutional Loya Jirga (Grand Council) on issues of independence, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity; it can amend the provisions of the constitution and prosecute the president; it consists of members of the National Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and district councils; no constitutional Loya Jirga has ever been held, and district councils have never been elected; the president appointed 34 members of the Meshrano Jirga that the district councils should have indirectly elected
    elections: the Wolesi Jirga’s five-year term expired in 2015, but the president extended its term by decree until elections can be held
    election results: results by party - NA; seats by party - NA
    Judicial branch:
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Stera Mahkama (consists of the supreme court chief and 8 justices organized into criminal, public security, civil, and commercial divisions or dewans)
    judge selection and term of office: court chief and justices appointed by the president with the approval of the Wolesi Jirga; court chief and justices serve single 10-year terms
    subordinate courts: Appeals Courts; Primary Courts; Special Courts for issues including narcotics, security, property, family, and juveniles
    Political parties and leaders:
    note - the Ministry of Justice licensed 67 political parties as of September 2015
    Political pressure groups and leaders:
    other: religious groups, tribal leaders, ethnically based groups, Taliban
    International organization participation:
    ADB, CICA, CP, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (dialogue member), UN, UNAMA, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Hamdullah MOHIB (since 17 September 2015)
    chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 483-6410
    FAX: [1] (202) 483-6488
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York, Washington, DC
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador P. Michael MCKINLEY (since 22 December 2014)
    embassy: Bibi Mahru, Kabul
    mailing address: U.S. Embassy Kabul, APO, AE 09806
    telephone: [00 93] 0700 108 001
    FAX: [00 93] 0700 108 564
    Flag description:
    three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), red, and green, with the national emblem in white centered on the red band and slightly overlapping the other two bands; the center of the emblem features a mosque with pulpit and flags on either side, below the mosque are numerals for the solar year 1298 (1919 in the Gregorian calendar, the year of Afghan independence from the UK); this central image is circled by a border consisting of sheaves of wheat on the left and right, in the upper-center is an Arabic inscription of the Shahada (Muslim creed) below which are rays of the rising sun over the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning "God is great"), and at bottom center is a scroll bearing the name Afghanistan; black signifies the past, red is for the blood shed for independence, and green can represent either hope for the future, agricultural prosperity, or Islam
    note: Afghanistan had more changes to its national flag in the 20th century than any other country; the colors black, red, and green appeared on most of them
    National symbol(s):
    lion; national colors: red, green, black
    National anthem:
    name: "Milli Surood" (National Anthem)
    lyrics/music: Abdul Bari JAHANI/Babrak WASA
    note: adopted 2006; the 2004 constitution of the post-Taliban government mandated that a new national anthem should be written containing the phrase "Allahu Akbar" (God is Greatest) and mentioning the names of Afghanistan's ethnic groups
  • Hide

    Economy :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Economy - overview:
    Afghanistan's economy is recovering from decades of conflict. The economy has improved significantly since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001 largely because of the infusion of international assistance, the recovery of the agricultural sector, and service sector growth. Despite the progress of the past few years, Afghanistan is extremely poor, landlocked, and highly dependent on foreign aid. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of housing, clean water, electricity, medical care, and jobs. Criminality, insecurity, weak governance, lack of infrastructure, and the Afghan Government's difficulty in extending rule of law to all parts of the country pose challenges to future economic growth. Afghanistan's living standards are among the lowest in the world.
    The international community remains committed to Afghanistan's development, pledging over $67 billion at nine donors' conferences between 2003 and 2010. In July 2012, the donors at the Tokyo conference pledged an additional $16 billion in civilian aid through 2015. Despite this help, the Government of Afghanistan will need to overcome a number of challenges, including low revenue collection, anemic job creation, high levels of corruption, weak government capacity, and poor public infrastructure.
    Afghanistan's growth rate slowed markedly in 2014-15. The drawdown of international security forces that started in 2014 has negatively affected economic growth, as a substantial portion of commerce, especially in the services sector, has catered to the ongoing international troop presence in the country. Afghan President Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai is dedicated to instituting economic reforms to include improving revenue collection and fighting corruption. However, the reforms will take time to implement and Afghanistan will remain dependent on international donor support over the next several years.
    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $64.08 billion (2016 est.)
    $62.82 billion (2015 est.)
    $62.35 billion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 104
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $18.4 billion (2014 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    2% (2016 est.)
    0.8% (2015 est.)
    1.3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $2,000 (2016 est.)
    $2,000 (2015 est.)
    $2,000 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Gross national saving:
    23.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    23.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    20% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 108.6%
    government consumption: 12.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 18.2%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 6.6%
    imports of goods and services: -46.2% (2014 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 24%
    industry: 21%
    services: 55%
    note: data exclude opium production (2014 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    opium, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins, poppies
    Industries:
    small-scale production of bricks, textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper
    Industrial production growth rate:
    2.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Labor force:
    7.983 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 78.6%
    industry: 5.7%
    services: 15.7% (FY08/09 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    35% (2008 est.)
    40% (2005 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Population below poverty line:
    35.8% (2011 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 3.8%
    highest 10%: 24% (2008)
    Budget:
    revenues: $1.7 billion
    expenditures: $6.639 billion (2015 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    9.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -26.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    Fiscal year:
    21 December - 20 December
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    4.5% (2016 est.)
    -1.5% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    15% (31 December 2015 est.)
    15% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Stock of narrow money:
    $6.644 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.192 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Stock of broad money:
    $6.945 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.544 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $-454 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $-767.8 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $NA
    Current account balance:
    $827 million (2016 est.)
    $925 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Exports:
    $658 million (2014 est.)
    $2.679 billion (2013 est.)
    note: not including illicit exports or reexports
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Exports - commodities:
    opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
    Exports - partners:
    India 42.3%, Pakistan 29%, Tajikistan 7.6% (2015)
    Imports:
    $7.004 billion (2014 est.)
    $12.19 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products
    Imports - partners:
    Pakistan 38.6%, India 8.9%, US 8.3%, Turkmenistan 6.2%, China 6%, Kazakhstan 5.9%, Azerbaijan 4.9% (2015)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $6.232 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $6.681 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Debt - external:
    $1.28 billion (FY10/11)
    $2.7 billion (FY08/09)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Exchange rates:
    afghanis (AFA) per US dollar -
    61.14 (2016 est.)
    61.14 (2015 est.)
    61.14 (2014 est.)
    57.25 (2013 est.)
    46.45 (2010)
  • Hide

    Energy :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Electricity - production:
    1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Electricity - consumption:
    4.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Electricity - imports:
    3.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    600,000 kW (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    35.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    64.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    130,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    127,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Natural gas - production:
    159.6 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Natural gas - consumption:
    159.6 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    49.55 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    7.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
  • Hide

    Communications :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 110,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total: 19.709 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 61 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: limited fixed-line telephone service; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks
    domestic: aided by the presence of multiple providers, mobile-cellular telephone service continues to improve rapidly; the Afghan Ministry of Communications and Information claims that more than 90 percent of the population live in areas with access to mobile-cellu
    international: country code - 93; multiple VSAT's provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity (2012)
    Broadcast media:
    state-owned broadcaster, Radio Television Afghanistan (RTA), operates a series of radio and television stations in Kabul and the provinces; an estimated 150 private radio stations, 50 TV stations, and about a dozen international broadcasters are available (2007)
    Internet country code:
    .af
    Internet users:
    total: 2.69 million
    percent of population: 8.3% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
  • Hide

    Transportation :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 4
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 20
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,929,907
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 33,102,038 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    YA (2016)
    Airports:
    43 (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 25
    over 3,047 m: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 18
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m: 5 (2016)
    Heliports:
    9 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    gas 466 km (2013)
    Roadways:
    total: 42,150 km
    paved: 12,350 km
    unpaved: 29,800 km (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Waterways:
    1,200 km; (chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Ports and terminals:
    river port(s): Kheyrabad, Shir Khan
  • Hide

    Military and Security :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Military branches:
    Afghan National Security Forces: Afghan National Army (includes Afghan Air Force), Afghan National Police, Afghan Local Police (2016)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2016)
    Military expenditures:
    28.09% of GDP (2016)
    4.74% of GDP (2011)
  • Hide

    Transnational Issues :: AFGHANISTAN

    Panel - Expanded
  • Disputes - international:
    Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps and since 2014 have met to discuss collaboration on the Taliban insurgency and counterterrorism efforts; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey; Iran protests Afghanistan's restricting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 257,523 (Pakistan) (2015)
    IDPs: 1,174,306 (mostly Pashtuns and Kuchis displaced in the south and west due to drought and political instability) (2015)
    Illicit drugs:
    world's largest producer of opium; poppy cultivation increased 7 percent, to a record 211,000 hectares in 2014 from 198,000 hectares in 2013, while eradication dropped sharply; relatively low opium yields due to poor weather kept potential opium production - 6,300 metric tons - below the record set in 2007; the Taliban and other antigovernment groups participate in and profit from the opiate trade, which is a key source of revenue for the Taliban inside Afghanistan; widespread corruption and instability impede counterdrug efforts; most of the heroin consumed in Europe and Eurasia is derived from Afghan opium; Afghanistan is also struggling to respond to a burgeoning domestic opiate addiction problem; vulnerable to drug money laundering through informal financial networks; illicit cultivation of cannabis and regional source of hashish


http://stranymira.com/2007/01/30/afganistan.html 
Исламское государство Афганистан (до 1992 года — Демократическая Республика Афганистан) — страна в Юго-Западной Азии, граничит с Ираном, Пакистаном, Индией, Китаем, Таджикистаном, Узбекистаном и Туркменистаном. Площадь Афганистана 652,2 тыс. км2. Население — 26,7 млн. человек: свыше 1/2 — афганцы, а также таджики, узбеки, туркмены, хазарейцы и др. Административно-теориториальное деление: 29 провинций (вилаятов) и 2 округа центрального подчинения. Столица страны — Кабул. Государственные языки — пушту и дари. Господствующая религия — ислам.
Большую часть территории Афганистана занимают горы. С востока на запад протянулись хребты Гиндукуша (до 6729 м), включающие пояс вечных снегов. В южной части страны находится Газни–Кандагарское плоскогорье, а на северных и юго-западных окраинах — пустынные равнины. Растительность отличается большим разнообразием, но почти повсеместно, даже в юго-восточной области, испытывающей влияние муссонов, в ней преобладают засухоустойчивые виды. Только в орошаемой Джелалабадской долине растут финиковые пальмы, кипарисы, оливковые деревья, цитрусовые.
Первые афганские государственные образования возникли в 16 веке. В 1747-1818 существовала Дурранийская держава. В 19 веке Англия предприняла несколько попыток подчинить Афганистан (англо-афганские войны). Эти попытки закончились провалом, но англичане добились установления контроля над внешней политикой Афганистана. В 1919 году правительство Амануллы-хана провозгласило независимость Афганистана. В июле 1973 Афганистан был провозглашен республикой. В 1978 Народно-демократическая партия Афганистана совершила государственный переворот и провозгласила курс на построение социализма. В стране началась гражданская война. В 1979 в Афганистан были введены советские войска, которые помогали НДПА удерживать власть. Вскоре после вывода советских войск (1989) к власти в 1992 пришли моджахеды — сторонники исламского государства. Однако гражданская война на этом не закончилась: противоречия между отдельными исламскими группировками приводили к все новым и новым конфликтам. В середине 1990-х годов большая часть территории Афганистана (включая Кабул) оказалась под контролем фундаменталистов из движения «Талибан». В октябре 2001 года власть талибов, обвиненных в пособничестве мировому терроризму, была свергнута силами США и их союзников.
Столица — древний город Кабул (1,4 млн. человек), выгодно расположен на перекрестке важных транспортных путей. Другие крупные города — Мазари-Шариф, издавна известный как центр ремесленного производства и торговли с красочным восточным базаром; старинный Герат — оазис и культурный центр, где в ХV веке была воздвигнута гигантская мечеть Джума-Масджид.
Афганистан — аграрная страна, основу экономики которой всегда составляло пастбищное животноводство. Война, начавшаяся в конце 1970-х годов, нанесла огромный урон экономике страны, значительно разрушив сложившуюся инфраструктуру сельского хозяйства и уничтожив сотни библиотек, школ, больниц.
 
ОСНОВНЫЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ  http://worldgeo.ru/asia/afg/
Столица: город Кабул
Территория: Площадь652 000 км² 
(40 место в мире)
Использование земель
(2011 год, CIA)
Площадь пашни: 11,9%
Плодово-ягодные насаждения: 0,2%
Территория пастбищ: 46,0%
Площадь лесов: 2,1%
Население: Численность31 822 848 чел.
(40 место в мире, июль 2014 г., CIA)
Плотность48,8 чел./км²
 
Урбанизация
городское население 26.3%
сельское население 73.7%
 
Прогноз численности
(по данным ООН)
2025 год 44 934 тыс. чел.
2050 год 61 004 тыс. чел.
 
Изменение численности
(на 1000 человек в 2014 году)
Количество новорожденных: 38,84
Количество умерших: 14,12
Количество мигрантов: -1,83
Годовой прирост населения: 2,29%
 
Распределение численности
(июль 2014 года, тыс. чел.)
возраст мужчин женщин всего
от 0 до 14 лет 6 794 6 579 42,0%
от 15 до 24 лет 3 600 3 465 22,2%
от 25 до 54 лет 4 771 4 587 29,4%
от 55 до 64 лет 603 623 3,9%
более 65 лет 372 429 2,5%
 
показатель мужчин женщин всех
средний возраст населения (лет) 18,1 18,2 18,1
средняя продолжительность жизни (лет) 49,2 51,9 50,5
уровень грамотности
(2015 год)
52% 24% 38%
 
Количество мужчин на 1000 женщин 1029
Средн. число детей у одной женщины 5,4
Крупные города:  
город население координаты
Кабул 2 142 300 34° 32' с.ш.
69° 10' в.д.
Кандагар 339 200 31° 37' с.ш.
65° 41' в.д.
Мазари-Шариф 239 800 36° 42' с.ш.
67° 6' в.д.
Чарикар 196 700 35° 1' с.ш.
69° 10' в.д.
Герат 166 600 34° 21' с.ш.
62° 11' в.д.
Джелалабад 158 800 34° 26' с.ш.
70° 26' в.д.
Файзабад 148 500 37° 8' с.ш.
70° 35' в.д.
Границы:
Территория граничит с
Китаем 76 км
Ираном 936 км
Пакистаном 2430 км
Таджикистаном 1206 км
Туркменистаном 744 км
Узбекистаном 137 км
Общая протяженность границ 5529 км
Береговая линия: 0 км
Архивы: Фото, Видео, АудиоArchives: Photo, Video, Audio
Культура, специфика, переменыCulture, specific, conversions
Столица, большие города, регионыCapital, big cities, regionsОбщее, история, памятноеGeneral, history, memorables
Демография, этносы, языки, конфессииDemography, ethnoses, languages, confessionsГеография, природа, экологияGeography, nature, ecology
Конфликты, выборы, реформыConflicts, elections, reformsТуризм, отдыхTourism, relaxation
Медиа, общественное мнениеMedia, social opinionСпорт, хобби, обычаиSport, hobby, customs
 Afghanistan's recent history is characterized by war and civil strife, with intermittent periods of relative calm and stability. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 but was forced to withdraw 10 years later by anti-Communist mujahidin forces supplied and trained by the US, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others. Fighting subsequently continued among the various mujahidin factions, giving rise to a state of warlordism that spawned the Taliban in the early 1990s. The Taliban was able to seize most of the country, aside from Northern Alliance strongholds primarily in the northeast, until US and allied military action in support of the opposition following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks forced the group's downfall. The four largest Afghan opposition groups met in Bonn, Germany, in late 2001 and agreed on a plan for the formulation of a new government structure that resulted in the inauguration of Hamid KARZAI as Chairman of the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) on 22 December 2001. In addition to occasionally violent political jockeying and ongoing military action to root out remaining terrorists and Taliban elements, the country suffers from enormous poverty, a crumbling infrastructure, and widespread land mines. Geography Afghanistan Top of Page Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E Map references: Asia Area: total: 647,500 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 647,500 sq km Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas Land boundaries: total: 5,529 km border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none (landlocked) Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest Elevation extremes: lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 0% other: 88% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 23,860 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution Environment - international agreements: party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation Geography - note: landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor) People Afghanistan Top of Page Population: 27,755,775 (July 2002 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 42% (male 5,953,291; female 5,706,542) 15-64 years: 55.2% (male 7,935,101; female 7,382,101) 65 years and over: 2.8% (male 410,278; female 368,462) (2002 est.) Population growth rate: 3.43% note: this rate reflects the continued return of refugees from Iran (2002 est.) Birth rate: 41.03 births/1,000 population (2002 est.) Death rate: 17.43 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.) Net migration rate: 10.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2002 est.) Infant mortality rate: 144.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.6 years female: 45.85 years (2002 est.) male: 47.32 years Total fertility rate: 5.72 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA Nationality: noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan Ethnic groups: Pashtun 44%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 10%, minor ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others) 13%, Uzbek 8% Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1% Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write male: 51% female: 21% (1999 est.) total population: 36% People - note: large numbers of Afghan refugees create burdens on neighboring states Government Afghanistan Top of Page Country name: conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan local short form: Afghanestan former: Republic of Afghanistan local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan Government type: transitional Capital: Kabul Administrative divisions: 32 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol, Nurestan, and Khowst Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs) National holiday: Independence Day, 19 August (1919) Constitution: the Bonn Agreement calls for a Constitutional Loya Jirga (Grand Council) to be convened within 18 months of the establishment of the Transitional Authority to draft a new constitution for the country; the basis for the next constitution is the 1963/64 Constitution, according to the Bonn Agreement Legal system: the Bonn Agreement calls for a judicial commission to rebuild the justice system in accordance with Islamic principles, international standards, the rule of law, and Afghan legal traditions Suffrage: NA; previously males 15-50 years of age Executive branch: note: following the Taliban's refusal to hand over Usama bin LADIN to the US for his suspected involvement in the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the US, a US-led international coalition was formed; after several weeks of aerial bombardment by coalition forces and military action on the ground, including Afghan opposition forces, the Taliban was ousted from power on 17 November 2001; in December 2001 a number of prominent Afghans met under UN auspices in Bonn, Germany, to decide on a plan for governing the country; as a result, the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) - made up of 30 members, headed by a chairman and five deputy chairmen - was inaugurated on 22 December 2001 with about a six-month mandate to be followed by a two-year Transitional Authority (TA) after which elections are to be held; the structure of the follow-on TA will be announced on 10 June 2002 when the Loya Jirga (grand assembly) is convened chief of state: Chairman of the AIA, Hamad KARZAI (since 22 December 2001); note - presently the chairman is both chief of state and head of government head of government: Chairman of the AIA, Hamad KARZAI (since 22 December 2001); note - presently the chairman is both chief of state and head of government cabinet: the 30-member AIA elections: NA Legislative branch: nonfunctioning as of June 1993 Judicial branch: the Bonn Agreement calls for the establishment of a Supreme Court Political parties and leaders: NA; note - political parties in Afghanistan are in flux and many prominent players have plans to create new parties; the three main groups represented in the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) are: the Northern Alliance (also known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan) - the main opposition to the Taliban - composed of different ethnic and political groups; the Rome Group, associated with the former king of Afghanistan, composed mainly of expatriate Afghans; and the Peshawar Group, another expatriate group; there are also several "independent" groups Political pressure groups and leaders: NA; note - ministries formed under the Afghan Interim Authority(AIA) include former pressure group leaders International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IOC (suspended), IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: ambassador Ishaq SHAHRYAR (as of 19 June 2002) chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20008 FAX: 202-483-6487 consulate(s) general: New York telephone: 202-483-6410 Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert Patrick John FINN; note - embassy in Kabul reopened 16 December 2001 following closure in January 1989 embassy: Great Masood Road, Kabul mailing address: NA telephone: 93-2-290002-290005 FAX: NA Flag description: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green with a gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bold Islamic inscription above Economy Afghanistan Top of Page Economy - overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during two decades of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). During that conflict one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of more than 6 million refugees. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 20 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport; severe drought added to the nation's difficulties in 1998-2001. The majority of the population continues to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care, problems exacerbated by military operations and political uncertainties. Inflation remains a serious problem. Following the US-led coalition war that led to the defeat of the Taliban in November 2001 and the formulation of the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) resulting from the December 2001 Bonn Agreement, International efforts to rebuild Afghanistan were addressed at the Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan Reconstruction in January 2002, when $4.5 billion was collected for a trust fund to be administered by the World Bank. Priority areas for reconstruction include the construction of education, health, and sanitation facilities, enhancement of administrative capacity, the development of the agricultural sector, and the rebuilding of road, energy, and telecommunication links. GDP: purchasing power parity - $21 billion (2000 est.) GDP - real growth rate: NA% GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (2000 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 60% industry: 20% services: 20% (1990 est.) Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA% Labor force: 10 million (2000 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry 10%, services 10% (1990 est.) Unemployment rate: NA% Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper Electricity - production: 375 million kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 36% hydro: 64% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 453.75 million kWh (2000) Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000) Electricity - imports: 105 million kWh (2000) Agriculture - products: wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, sheepskin, and lambskin Exports: $1.2 billion (2001 est.) Exports - commodities: opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems Exports - partners: Pakistan 32%, India 8%, Belgium 7%, Germany 5%, Russia 5%, UAE 4% (1999) Imports: $1.3 billion (2001 est.) Imports - commodities: capital goods, food and petroleum products; most consumer goods Imports - partners: Pakistan 19%, Japan 16%, Kenya 9%, South Korea 7%, India 6%, Turkmenistan 6% (1999) Debt - external: $5.5 billion (1996 est.) Economic aid - recipient: international pledges made by more than 60 countries and international financial institutions at the Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan reconstruction in January 2002 reached $4.5 billion through 2006, with $1.8 billion allocated for 2002; according to a joint preliminary assessment conducted by the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the UN Development Program, rebuilding Afghanistan will cost roughly $15 billion over the next ten years Currency: afghani (AFA) Currency code: AFA Exchange rates: afghanis per US dollar - 4,700 (January 2000), 4,750 (February 1999), 17,000 (December 1996), 7,000 (January 1995), 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991); note - these rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rate, which was fixed at 50.600 afghanis to the dollar until 1996, when it rose to 2,262.65 per dollar, and finally became fixed again at 3,000.00 per dollar in April 1996 Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March Communications Afghanistan Top of Page Telephones - main lines in use: 29,000 (1998) Telephones - mobile cellular: NA Telephone system: general assessment: very limited telephone and telegraph service domestic: in 1997, telecommunications links were established between Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Kabul through satellite and microwave systems international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); commercial satellite telephone center in Ghazni Radio broadcast stations: AM 7 (6 are inactive; the active station is in Kabul), FM 1, shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pashtu, Afghan Persian (Dari), Urdu, and English) (1999) Radios: 167,000 (1999) Television broadcast stations: at least 10 (one government-run central television station in Kabul and regional stations in nine of the 32 provinces; the regional stations operate on a reduced schedule; also, in 1997, there was a station in Mazar-e Sharif reaching four northern Afghanistan provinces) (1998) Televisions: 100,000 (1999) Internet country code: .af Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000) Internet users: NA Transportation Afghanistan Top of Page Railways: total: 24.6 km broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi; 15 km 1.524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya (2001) Highways: total: 21,000 km paved: 2,793 km unpaved: 18,207 km (1998 est.) Waterways: 1,200 km note: chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT (2001) Pipelines: natural gas 180 km note: product pipelines from Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have been in disrepair and disuse for years (2002) Ports and harbors: Kheyrabad, Shir Khan Airports: 46 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 10 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 36 under 914 m: 11 (2001) 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 4 Heliports: 2 (2001) Military Afghanistan Top of Page Military branches: NA; note - the December 2001 Bonn Agreement calls for all militia forces to come under Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) control, but formation of a national army is likely to be a gradual process; Afghanistan's forces continue to be factionalized largely along ethnic lines Military manpower - military age: 22 years of age (2002 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,896,623 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,696,379 (2002 est.) Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 252,869 (2002 est.) Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA% Transnational Issues Afghanistan Top of Page Disputes - international: close ties with Pashtuns in Pakistan make long border difficult to control Illicit drugs: poppy ban cut 2001 cultivation by 97% to 1,695 hectares, with potential production of 74 tons of opium; a major source of hashish; many heroin-processing laboratories throughout the country; major political factions in the country profit from the drug trade This page was last updated on 1 January 2002
Вовне представительстваOutside representations
Персоны известныеPersons Извне представительстваInside representations
Военные, оборонка, безопасностьMilitary, arms, securityОтзывыOpinions
Экзы - войны, бедствияExes - wars, disastersПродукция, экспортProduction, export
Правоприменение, криминал, тюрьмыLaw enforcement, crime, prisonsБиблиографияBibliography
Ликвидация, угрозы, разделLiquidation, threats, partitionСетьWeb