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Сирия - Сирийская Арабская Республика 1946- геозона Азия Западная, площадь 185180 кв км, население 17780044 (2013), столица Дамаск UTC +2 (летом +3); президент АСАД Башар Хафез 2000- родился 1965-09-11; телефонный код +963, ISO код SY, Интернет-домен .sy Syria - Syrian Arab Republic 1946- geozone Asia Western, area 185180 sq km, population 17780044 (2013), capital Damascus UTC +2 (in summer +3); President ASAD Bashar Hafez 2000 - born 1965-09-11; phone code +963, ISO code SY, Internet domain .sy

СозданиеCreationУчредители, первое лицоFounders, supreme authorityПравительствоGovernmentПарламентParliamentОппозиция, обществнностьOpposition, public
Конституция, законы, инсигнииConstitution, laws, insigniaРейтингиRatingsЭкономика, ресурсыEconomics, resourcesСоциалкаSocialФинансы, бюджетFinances, budget
Место в мировой системеPlace in world system
Архивы: Фото, Видео, АудиоArchives: Photo, Video, Audio
Культура, специфика, переменыCulture, specific, conversions
Столица, большие города, регионыCapital, big cities, regions
Демография, этносы, языки, конфессииDemography, ethnoses, languages, confessionsГеография, природа, экологияGeography, nature, ecology
Конфликты, выборы, реформыConflicts, elections, reformsТуризм, отдыхTourism, relaxation
Медиа, общественное мнениеMedia, social opinionСпорт, хобби, обычаиSport, hobby, customs
 Syria Background: Following the breakup of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, Syria was administered by the French until independence in 1946. In the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel. Since 1976, Syrian troops have been stationed in Lebanon, ostensibly in a peacekeeping capacity. In recent years, Syria and Israel have held occasional peace talks over the return of the Golan Heights. Geography Syria Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Lebanon and Turkey Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 38 00 E Map references: Middle East Area: total: 185,180 sq km note: includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory water: 1,130 sq km land: 184,050 sq km Area - comparative: slightly larger than North Dakota Land boundaries: total: 2,253 km border countries: Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 km Coastline: 193 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 41 NM territorial sea: 35 NM Climate: mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus Terrain: primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in west Elevation extremes: lowest point: unnamed location near Lake Tiberias -200 m highest point: Mount Hermon 2,814 m Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower Land use: arable land: 25.96% permanent crops: 4.08% other: 69.96% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 12,130 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution from raw sewage and petroleum refining wastes; inadequate potable water Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification Geography - note: there are 42 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (February 2002 est.) People Syria Population: 17,585,540 (July 2002 est.) note: in addition, about 40,000 people live in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights - 20,000 Arabs (18,000 Druze and 2,000 Alawites) and about 20,000 Israeli settlers (February 2003 est.) (July 2003 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.6% (male 3,494,473; female 3,290,699) 15-64 years: 58.2% (male 5,238,026; female 4,991,588) 65 years and over: 3.2% (male 274,744; female 296,010) (2003 est.) Median age: total: 19.7 years male: 19.6 years female: 19.9 years (2002) Population growth rate: 2.45% (2003 est.) Birth rate: 29.54 births/1,000 population (2003 est.) Death rate: 5.04 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.) Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2003 est.) Infant mortality rate: total: 31.67 deaths/1,000 live births female: 31.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 31.89 deaths/1,000 live births Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.39 years male: 68.18 years female: 70.67 years (2003 est.) Total fertility rate: 3.72 children born/woman (2003 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.01% (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA Nationality: noun: Syrian(s) adjective: Syrian Ethnic groups: Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7% Religions: Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects 16%, Christian (various sects) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo) Languages: Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 76.9% male: 89.7% female: 64% (2003 est.) Government Syria Country name: conventional long form: Syrian Arab Republic conventional short form: Syria local short form: Suriyah former: United Arab Republic (with Egypt) local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah Government type: republic under military regime since March 1963 Capital: Damascus Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif Dimashq, Tartus Independence: 17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration) National holiday: Independence Day, 17 April (1946) Constitution: 13 March 1973 Legal system: based on Islamic law and civil law system; special religious courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Bashar al-ASAD (since 17 July 2000); Vice Presidents Abd al-Halim ibn Said KHADDAM (since 11 March 1984) and Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984) head of government: Prime Minister Muhammad Naji al-UTRI (since 10 September 2003), Deputy Prime Ministers Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March 1984), Farouk al-SHARA (since 13 December 2001), Dr. Muhammad al-HUSAYN (since 13 December 2001) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; referendum/election last held 10 July 2000 - after the death of President Hafez al-ASAD, father of Bashar al-ASAD - (next to be held NA 2007); vice presidents appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president note: Hafiz al-ASAD died on 10 June 2000; on 20 June 2000, the Ba'th Party nominated Bashar al-ASAD for president and presented his name to the People's Council on 25 June 2000 election results: Bashar al-ASAD elected president; percent of vote - Bashar al-ASAD 97.29% Legislative branch: unicameral People's Council or Majlis al-shaab (250 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - NPF 67%, independents 33%; seats by party - NPF 167, independents 83; note - the constitution guarantees that the Ba'th Party (part of the NPF alliance) receives one-half of the seats elections: last held 2-3 March 2003 (next to be held NA 2007) Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court (justices are appointed for four-year terms by the president); High Judicial Council; Court of Cassation; State Security Courts Political parties and leaders: National Progressive Front or NPF (includes Arab Socialist Renaissance (Ba'th) Party (governing party) [President Bashar al-ASAD, secretary general], Socialist Unionist Democratic Party [Ahmad al ASAD], Syrian Communist Party [leader NA], Unionist Socialist Party [leader NA], Arab Socialist Party [Abd al-Ghani QANNUT], and Arab Socialist Unionist Movement [Sami SUFAN]) [President Bashar al-ASAD, chairman]; Syrian Arab Socialist Party or ASP [Safwan QUDSI]; Syrian Communist Party or SCP [Yusuf FAYSAL]; Syrian Social National Party [Jubran URAYJI] Political pressure groups and leaders: conservative religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood (operates in exile in Jordan and Yemen); non-Ba'th parties have little effective political influence International organization participation: AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (acting) Imad MUSTAFA chancery: 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: [1] (202) 234-9548 telephone: [1] (202) 232-6313 Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Theodore H. KATTOUF embassy: Abou Roumaneh, Al-Mansur Street, No. 2, Damascus mailing address: P. O. Box 29, Damascus telephone: [963] (11) 333-1342 FAX: [963] (11) 331-9678 Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black, with two small green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band, and of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band Economy Syria Economy - overview: Syria's predominantly statist economy has been growing, on average, more slowly than its 2.4% annual population growth rate, causing a persistent decline in per capita GDP. Recent legislation allows private banks to operate in Syria, although a private banking sector will take years and further government cooperation to develop. External factors such as the international war on terrorism, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the war between the US-led coalition and Iraq probably will drive real annual GDP growth levels back below their 3.5% spike in 2002. A long-run economic constraint is the pressure on water supplies caused by rapid population growth, industrial expansion, and increased water pollution. GDP: purchasing power parity - $63.48 billion (2002 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (2002 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,700 (2002 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 27% industry: 23% services: 50% (2000 est.) Population below poverty line: 15%-25% Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (2002 est.) Labor force: 5.2 million (2000 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture, industry, services NA (2002) Unemployment rate: 20% (2002 est.) Budget: revenues: $6 billion expenditures: $7 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.6 billion (2002 est.) Industries: petroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining Industrial production growth rate: NA% Electricity - production: 23.26 billion kWh (2001) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 57.6% hydro: 42.4% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 21.63 billion kWh (2001) Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001) Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2001) Oil - production: 522,700 bbl/day (2001 est.) Oil - consumption: 265,000 bbl/day (2001 est.) Oil - exports: NA (2001) Oil - imports: NA (2001) Oil - proved reserves: 2.4 billion bbl (37257) Natural gas - production: 5.84 billion cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - consumption: 5.84 billion cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - proved reserves: 240.7 billion cu m (37257) Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas, olives, sugar beets; beef, mutton, eggs, poultry, milk Exports: $6.2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.) Exports - commodities: crude oil 70%, petroleum products 7%, fruits and vegetables 5%, cotton fiber 4%, clothing 3%, meat and live animals 2% (2000 est.) Exports - partners: Germany 19.1%, Italy 17.5%, Turkey 7.8%, France 7.5%, Lebanon 5.2% (2002) Imports: $4.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 21%, food and livestock 18%, metal and metal products 15%, chemicals and chemical products 10% (2000 est.) Imports - partners: Italy 8.3%, Germany 7.4%, China 5.7%, South Korea 4.8%, France 4.6%, US 4.4%, Turkey 4.1% (2002) Debt - external: $22 billion (2002 est.) Economic aid - recipient: $199 million (1997 est.) Currency: Syrian pound (SYP) Currency code: SYP Exchange rates: Syrian pounds per US dollar - (Official rate): 11.23 (2002), 11.23 (2001), 11.23 (2000), 11.23 (1999), 11.23 (1998), (Free market rate): 49.65 (2001), 49.4 (2000), 51.7 (1999), 52 (1998) Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Syria Telephones - main lines in use: 1.313 million (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: NA Telephone system: general assessment: fair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital upgrades, including fiber-optic technology domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay network international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 1 submarine cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey; participant in Medarabtel Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998) Radios: 4.15 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 44 (plus 17 repeaters) (1995) Televisions: 1.05 million (1997) Internet country code: .sy Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000) Internet users: 60,000 (2002) Transportation Syria Railways: total: 2,743 km standard gauge: 2,425 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 318 km 1.050-m gauge (2002) Highways: total: 43,381 km paved: 10,021 km (including 877 km of expressways) unpaved: 33,360 km (1999) Waterways: 870 km (minimal economic importance) Pipelines: gas 2,300 km; oil 2,183 km (2003) Ports and harbors: Baniyas, Jablah, Latakia, Tartus Merchant marine: total: 129 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 450,135 GRT/645,296 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Egypt 1, Greece 2, Italy 1, Lebanon 10 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 109, container 2, livestock carrier 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1 Airports: 92 (2002) Airports - with paved runways: total: 24 over 3,047 m: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 16 under 914 m: 1 (2002) 914 to 1,523 m: 2 Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 68 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 55 (2002) Heliports: 7 (2002) Military Syria Military branches: Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air Force (includes Air Defense Forces), Police and Security Force Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2003 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 4,715,386 (2003 est.) Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 2,629,148 (2003 est.) Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 210,941 (2003 est.) Military expenditures - dollar figure: $858 million (FY00 est.); note - based on official budget data that may understate actual spending Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.9% (FY00) Transnational Issues Syria Disputes - international: Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied; Lebanon claims Shaba'a farms in Golan Heights; Syrian troops have been stationed in Lebanon since October 1976; Syria protests Turkish hydrological projects regulating upper Euphrates waters; Turkey is quick to rebuff any perceived Syrian claim to Hatay province Illicit drugs: a transit point for opiates and hashish bound for regional and Western markets This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003
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