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Корея Северная - Корейская Народно-Демократическая Республика (КНДР) 1948- государство чучхейское суверенное унитарное однопартийное, геозона Азия Восточная, площадь 120540 кв км, население 25368620 (2016), столица Пхеньян UTC +8:30 телефонный код +850; Глава Государственного совета КИМ Чен Ын 2011- родился 1984-01-08; ISO 3166 код KP; Интернет-домен .kp Korea North - Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) 1948 - Juche State sovereign unitary one-party state, geozone Asia East, area 120540 sq km, population 25368620 (2016), capital Pyongyang UTC +8:30 phone code +850; Head of State Council GIM Jeong-un 2011 - born 1984-01-08; ISO 3166 code KP; Internet domain .kp

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 Korea, North Background: Following World War II, Korea was split, with the northern half coming under Communist domination and the southern portion becoming Western-oriented. KIM Chong-il has ruled North Korea since his father and the country's founder, president KIM Il-song, died in 1994. After decades of mismanagement, the North relies heavily on international food aid to feed its population while continuing to expend resources to maintain an army of about 1 million. North Korea's long-range missile development and research into nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and massive conventional armed forces are of major concern to the international community. In December 2002, North Korea repudiated a 1994 agreement that shut down its nuclear reactors and expelled UN monitors, further raising fears it would produce nuclear weapons. Geography Korea, North Location: Eastern Asia, northern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Korea Bay and the Sea of Japan, between China and South Korea Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 127 00 E Map references: Asia Area: total: 120,540 sq km water: 130 sq km land: 120,410 sq km Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Mississippi Land boundaries: total: 1,673 km border countries: China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km, Russia 19 km Coastline: 2,495 km Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM note: military boundary line 50 NM in the Sea of Japan and the exclusive economic zone limit in the Yellow Sea where all foreign vessels and aircraft without permission are banned Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east Elevation extremes: lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m highest point: Paektu-san 2,744 m Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite, iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower Land use: arable land: 14.12% permanent crops: 2.49% other: 83.39% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 14,600 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding; occasional typhoons during the early fall Environment - current issues: water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water; water-borne disease; deforestation; soil erosion and degradation Environment - international agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea Geography - note: strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and Russia; mountainous interior is isolated and sparsely populated People Korea, North Population: 22,466,481 (July 2003 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 25% (male 2,845,727; female 2,763,800) 15-64 years: 67.8% (male 7,485,310; female 7,746,603) 65 years and over: 7.2% (male 541,155; female 1,083,886) (2003 est.) Median age: total: 31.1 years male: 30 years female: 32.3 years (2002) Population growth rate: 1.07% (2003 est.) Birth rate: 17.61 births/1,000 population (2003 est.) Death rate: 6.93 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.) Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2003 est.) Infant mortality rate: total: 25.66 deaths/1,000 live births female: 23.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.) male: 27.45 deaths/1,000 live births Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.79 years male: 68.1 years female: 73.61 years (2003 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.25 children born/woman (2003 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA Nationality: noun: Korean(s) adjective: Korean Ethnic groups: racially homogeneous; there is a small Chinese community and a few ethnic Japanese Religions: traditionally Buddhist and Confucianist, some Christian and syncretic Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way) note: autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent; government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of religious freedom Languages: Korean Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write Korean total population: 99% male: 99% female: 99% Government Korea, North Country name: conventional long form: Democratic People's Republic of Korea conventional short form: North Korea local short form: none local long form: Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk note: the North Koreans generally use the term "Choson" to refer to their country abbreviation: DPRK Government type: authoritarian socialist; one-man dictatorship Capital: Pyongyang Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 4 special cities* (si, singular and plural); Chagang-do (Chagang Province), Hamgyong-bukto (North Hamgyong Province), Hamgyong-namdo (South Hamgyong Province), Hwanghae-bukto (North Hwanghae Province), Hwanghae-namdo (South Hwanghae Province), Kaesong-si* (Kaesong City), Kangwon-do (Kangwon Province), Najin Sonbong-si*, Namp'o-si* (Namp'o City), P'yongan-bukto (North P'yongan Province), P'yongan-namdo (South P'yongan Province), P'yongyang-si* (Pyongyang City), Yanggang-do (Yanggang Province) Independence: 15 August 1945 (from Japan) National holiday: Founding of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), 9 September (1948) Constitution: adopted 1948, completely revised 27 December 1972, revised again in April 1992 and September 1998 Legal system: based on German civil law system with Japanese influences and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: KIM Chong-il (since NA July 1994); note - on 3 September 2003, KIM Chong-il was reelected Chairman of the National Defense Commission, a position accorded the nation's "highest administrative authority"; KIM Yong-nam was reelected President of the Supreme People's Assembly Presidium and given the responsibility of representing the state and receiving diplomatic credentials elections: premier elected by the Supreme People's Assembly; election last held NA September 1998 (next to be held NA) election results: HONG Song-nam elected premier; percent of Supreme People's Assembly vote - NA% cabinet: Cabinet (Naegak), members, except for the Minister of People's Armed Forces, are appointed by the Supreme People's Assembly head of government: Premier PAK Pong-chu (since 3 September 2003); Vice Premiers KWAK Pom-ki (since 5 September 1998), CHON Sung-hun (since 3 September 2003), NO Tu-chol (since 3 September 2003) Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Assembly or Ch'oego Inmin Hoeui (687 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 3 August 2003 (next to be held in August 2008) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; the KWP approves a list of candidates who are elected without opposition; some seats are held by minor parties Judicial branch: Central Court (judges are elected by the Supreme People's Assembly) Political parties and leaders: Chondoist Chongu Party [YU Mi-yong, chairwoman]; Social Democratic Party [KIM Yong-tae, chairman]; major party - Korean Workers' Party or KWP [KIM Chong-il, general secretary] Political pressure groups and leaders: NA International organization participation: ARF (dialogue partner), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - North Korea has a Permanent Mission to the UN in New York Diplomatic representation from the US: none (Swedish Embassy in P'yongyang represents the US as consular protecting power) Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band is a white disk with a red five-pointed star Economy Korea, North Economy - overview: North Korea, one of the world's most centrally planned and isolated economies, faces desperate economic conditions. Industrial capital stock is nearly beyond repair as a result of years of underinvestment and spare parts shortages. Industrial and power output have declined in parallel. The nation has suffered its tenth year of food shortages because of a lack of arable land; collective farming; weather-related problems, including major drought in 2000; and chronic shortages of fertilizer and fuel. Massive international food aid deliveries have allowed the regime to escape mass starvation since 1995-96, but the population remains the victim of prolonged malnutrition and deteriorating living conditions. Large-scale military spending eats up resources needed for investment and civilian consumption. Recently, the regime has placed emphasis on earning hard currency, developing information technology, addressing power shortages, and attracting foreign aid, but in no way at the expense of relinquishing central control over key national assets or undergoing widespread market-oriented reforms. In 2003, heightened political tensions with key donor countries and general donor fatigue have held down the flow of desperately needed food aid and have threatened fuel aid as well. GDP: purchasing power parity - $22.26 billion (2002 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 1% (2002 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2002 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 30.4% industry: 32.3% services: 37.3% (2000 est.) Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA% Labor force: 9.6 million Labor force - by occupation: agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64% Unemployment rate: NA% Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA Industries: military products; machine building, electric power, chemicals; mining (coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals), metallurgy; textiles, food processing; tourism Industrial production growth rate: NA% Electricity - production: 30.01 billion kWh (2001) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 29% hydro: 71% other: 0% (2001) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 27.91 billion kWh (2001) Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001) Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2001) Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.) Oil - consumption: 85,000 bbl/day (2001 est.) Oil - exports: NA (2001) Oil - imports: NA (2001) Agriculture - products: rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; cattle, pigs, pork, eggs Exports: $842 million f.o.b. (2001 est.) Exports - commodities: minerals, metallurgical products, manufactures (including armaments); textiles and fishery products Exports - partners: China 23.5%, Japan 19.9%, Costa Rica 12.4%, Brazil 6.5% (2002) Imports: $1.314 billion c.i.f. (2001 est.) Imports - commodities: petroleum, coking coal, machinery and equipment; textiles, grain Imports - partners: China 24.9%, Brazil 12.1%, India 9.2%, Thailand 9.2%, Germany 7.8%, Japan 7.1%, Singapore 4.5%, Qatar 4% (2002) Debt - external: $12 billion (1996 est.) Economic aid - recipient: $NA; note - nearly $300 million in food aid alone from US, South Korea, Japan, and EU in 2001 plus much additional aid from the UN and non-governmental organizations Currency: North Korean won (KPW) Currency code: KPW Exchange rates: official: North Korean won per US dollar - 150 (December 2002), 2.15 (December 2001), 2.15 (May 1994), 2.13 (May 1992), 2.14 (September 1991), 2.1 (January 1990); market: North Korean won per US dollar - 300-600 (December 2002), 200 (December 2001) Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Korea, North Telephones - main lines in use: 1.1 million (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: NA Telephone system: general assessment: NA domestic: NA international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Russian (Indian Ocean region); other international connections through Moscow and Beijing Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 14, shortwave 12 (1999) Radios: 3.36 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 38 (1999) Televisions: 1.2 million (1997) Internet country code: .kp Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000) Internet users: NA Transportation Korea, North Railways: total: 5,214 km standard gauge: 4,549 km 1.435-m gauge (3,500 km electrified) narrow gauge: 665 km 0.762-m gauge (2002) Highways: total: 31,200 km paved: 1,997 km unpaved: 29,203 km (1999 est.) Waterways: 2,253 km note: mostly navigable by small craft only Pipelines: oil 136 km (2003) Ports and harbors: Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam (Hamhung), Kimch'aek, Kosong, Najin, Namp'o, Sinuiju, Songnim, Sonbong (formerly Unggi), Ungsang, Wonsan Merchant marine: total: 149 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 881,276 GRT/1,309,547 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Denmark 1, Greece 2, Pakistan 1, Singapore 1 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 120, combination bulk 2, container 1, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 4, short-sea passenger 2 Airports: 72 (2002) Airports - with paved runways: total: 34 over 3,047 m: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 18 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 3 (2002) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 38 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 18 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 7 (2002) Military Korea, North Military branches: Korean People's Army (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), Civil Security Forces Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2003 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,103,615 (2003 est.) Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,654,223 (2003 est.) Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 180,875 (2003 est.) Military expenditures - dollar figure: $5,217.4 million (FY02) Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 33.9% (FY02) Transnational Issues Korea, North Disputes - international: with China, certain islands in Yalu and Tumen rivers are in uncontested dispute; a section of boundary around Paektu-san (mountain) is indefinite; China objects to illegal migration of North Koreans into northern China; Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953 This page was last updated on 18 December, 2003
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